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Nutrients 2014, 6(12), 5405-5418; doi:10.3390/nu6125405

Reduced Anxiety in Forensic Inpatients after a Long-Term Intervention with Atlantic Salmon

1
Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Christiesgt. 12, 5015 Bergen, Norway
2
Centre for Research and Education in Forensic Psychiatry, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen, Norway
3
Sand Ridge Secure Treatment Center (SRSTC), P.O. Box 0700, 1111 North Road, Mauston, WI 53948, USA
4
National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES), P.O. Box 2029, Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway
5
Department of Chemistry, University of Bergen, Allégaten 41, 5007 Bergen, Norway
6
Department of Psychology, the Ohio State University, 1835 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 August 2014 / Revised: 27 October 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 26 November 2014
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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Atlantic salmon consumption on underlying biological mechanisms associated with anxiety such as heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate (HR) as well as a measure of self-reported anxiety. Moreover, these biological and self-reported outcome measures were investigated in relation to specific nutrients; vitamin D status, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Ninety-five male forensic inpatients were randomly assigned into a Fish (Atlantic salmon three times per week from September to February) or a Control group (alternative meal, e.g., chicken, pork, or beef three times per week during the same period). HRV measured as the root mean square of successive differences (rMSSD), HR, state- and trait-anxiety (STAI), were assessed before (pre-test) and at the end of the 23 weeks dietary intervention period (post-test). The Fish group showed significant improvements in both rMSSD and HR. The Fish group also showed significant decreases in state-anxiety. Finally, there was a positive relationship between rMSSD and vitamin D status. The findings suggest that Atlantic salmon consumption may have an impact on mental health related variables such as underlying mechanisms playing a key role in emotion-regulation and state-anxiety. View Full-Text
Keywords: anxiety; heart rate variability; fatty fish consumption; fatty acids; vitamin D anxiety; heart rate variability; fatty fish consumption; fatty acids; vitamin D
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hansen, A.L.; Olson, G.; Dahl, L.; Thornton, D.; Grung, B.; Graff, I.E.; Frøyland, L.; Thayer, J.F. Reduced Anxiety in Forensic Inpatients after a Long-Term Intervention with Atlantic Salmon. Nutrients 2014, 6, 5405-5418.

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