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Nutrients 2014, 6(12), 5419-5433; doi:10.3390/nu6125419

Vitamin D Status in Malaysian Men and Its Associated Factors

1
Department of Pharmacology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2
Nutrition Science Program, School of Healthcare Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3
Department of Biochemistry, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, Cheras, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 August 2014 / Revised: 28 September 2014 / Accepted: 17 October 2014 / Published: 26 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Bone Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [202 KB, uploaded 26 November 2014]   |  

Abstract

Vitamin D insufficiency is a global health problem. The data on vitamin D status in Malaysian men is insufficient. This study aimed to investigate vitamin D status among Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia and its associating factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 383 men aged 20 years and above, residing in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Their age, ethnicity, body anthropometry and calcaneal speed of sound (SOS) were recorded. Their fasting blood was collected for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), intact parathyroid (PTH), total calcium and inorganic phosphate assays. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a serum 25(OH)D level <30 nmol/L and insufficiency as a serum 25(OH)D level between 30 and 50 nmol/L. The overall prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 0.5%, and insufficiency was 22.7%. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were more prevalent in the Malays compared to the Chinese. Being Chinese, older in age, having lower body mass index (BMI) and a high physical activity status were associated significantly with a higher serum 25(OH)D level (p < 0.05). The serum PTH level was inversely associated with the serum 25(OH)D level (p < 0.05). As a conclusion, a significant proportion of Malaysian men have vitamin D insufficiency, although deficiency is uncommon. Steps should be taken to correct the vitamin D status of these men. View Full-Text
Keywords: men; osteoporosis; parathyroid; vitamin D men; osteoporosis; parathyroid; vitamin D
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chin, K.-Y.; Ima-Nirwana, S.; Ibrahim, S.; Mohamed, I.N.; Wan Ngah, W.Z. Vitamin D Status in Malaysian Men and Its Associated Factors. Nutrients 2014, 6, 5419-5433.

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