Next Article in Journal
Nitrate Ingestion: A Review of the Health and Physical Performance Effects
Next Article in Special Issue
Evidence and Mechanisms of Fat Depletion in Cancer
Previous Article in Journal
Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Anti-Proliferative Effects of Enterolactone in Prostate Cancer Cells: Evidence for the Role of DNA Licencing Genes, mi-R106b Cluster Expression, and PTEN Dosage
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5184-5223; doi:10.3390/nu6115184

The Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer

Department of Human Health & Nutritional Sciences, College of Biological Sciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 August 2014 / Revised: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cancer)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [748 KB, uploaded 19 November 2014]   |  

Abstract

Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer among women worldwide. Dietary fatty acids, especially n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), are believed to play a role in reducing BC risk. Evidence has shown that fish consumption or intake of long-chain n-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are beneficial for inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis. The evidence regarding α-linolenic acid (ALA), however, remains equivocal. It is essential to clarify the relation between ALA and cancer since ALA is the principal source of n-3 PUFA in the Western diet and the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA is not efficient in humans. In addition, the specific anticancer roles of individual n-3 PUFA, alone, have not yet been identified. Therefore, the present review evaluates ALA, EPA and DHA consumed individually as well as in n-3 PUFA mixtures. Also, their role in the prevention of BC and potential anticancer mechanisms of action are examined. Overall, this review suggests that each n-3 PUFA has promising anticancer effects and warrants further research. View Full-Text
Keywords: n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); α-linolenic acid (ALA); mammary gland; breast cancer (BC) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); α-linolenic acid (ALA); mammary gland; breast cancer (BC)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, J.; Ma, D.W.L. The Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention and Treatment of Breast Cancer. Nutrients 2014, 6, 5184-5223.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top