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Nutrients 2014, 6(11), 5153-5183; doi:10.3390/nu6115153

Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention

1
School of Life Science and Technology, Xidian University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710071, China
2
Department of Psychiatry & McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, 1149 South Newell Drive, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
3
Xijing Gastrointestinal Hospital, the Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710032, China
4
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China
5
Malcom Randall Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Gainesville, FL 32608, USA
6
Department of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 June 2014 / Revised: 21 July 2014 / Accepted: 29 October 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Addiction)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [308 KB, uploaded 18 November 2014]   |  

Abstract

Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; food addiction; neuroendocrinology; neuroimaging; reward-saliency; motivation-drive; learning/memory circuit; inhibitory control-emotional regulation-executive control; bariatric surgery; fecal microbiota transplantation obesity; food addiction; neuroendocrinology; neuroimaging; reward-saliency; motivation-drive; learning/memory circuit; inhibitory control-emotional regulation-executive control; bariatric surgery; fecal microbiota transplantation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, Y.; Liu, J.; Yao, J.; Ji, G.; Qian, L.; Wang, J.; Zhang, G.; Tian, J.; Nie, Y.; Zhang, Y.E.; Gold, M.S.; Liu, Y. Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention. Nutrients 2014, 6, 5153-5183.

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