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Nutrients 2014, 6(1), 416-451; doi:10.3390/nu6010416
Review

Nutrition Prescription to Achieve Positive Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review

1,* , 2
, 3
 and 3
Received: 27 October 2013; in revised form: 31 December 2013 / Accepted: 7 January 2014 / Published: 22 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Kidney Disease)
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Abstract: In Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), management of diet is important in prevention of disease progression and symptom management, however evidence on nutrition prescription is limited. Recent international CKD guidelines and literature was reviewed to address the following question “What is the appropriate nutrition prescription to achieve positive outcomes in adult patients with chronic kidney disease?” Databases included in the search were Medline and CINAHL using EBSCOhost search engine, Embase and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews published from 2000 to 2009. International guidelines pertaining to nutrition prescription in CKD were also reviewed from 2000 to 2013. Three hundred and eleven papers and eight guidelines were reviewed by three reviewers. Evidence was graded as per the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia criteria. The evidence from thirty six papers was tabulated under the following headings: protein, weight loss, enteral support, vitamin D, sodium, fat, fibre, oral nutrition supplements, nutrition counselling, including protein and phosphate, nutrients in peritoneal dialysis solution and intradialytic parenteral nutrition, and was compared to international guidelines. While more evidence based studies are warranted, the customary nutrition prescription remains satisfactory with the exception of Vitamin D and phosphate. In these two areas, additional research is urgently needed given the potential of adverse outcomes for the CKD patient.
Keywords: chronic kidney disease; dietetics; evidence based practice; diet therapy; nutrition prescription chronic kidney disease; dietetics; evidence based practice; diet therapy; nutrition prescription
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ash, S.; Campbell, K.L.; Bogard, J.; Millichamp, A. Nutrition Prescription to Achieve Positive Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review. Nutrients 2014, 6, 416-451.

AMA Style

Ash S, Campbell KL, Bogard J, Millichamp A. Nutrition Prescription to Achieve Positive Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2014; 6(1):416-451.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ash, Susan; Campbell, Katrina L.; Bogard, Jessica; Millichamp, Anna. 2014. "Nutrition Prescription to Achieve Positive Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review." Nutrients 6, no. 1: 416-451.



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