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Nutrients 2013, 5(4), 1336-1348; doi:10.3390/nu5041336

Comparison between Calcitriol and Calcitriol Plus Low-Dose Cinacalcet for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Chronic Dialysis Patients

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung, 833, Taiwan
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Received: 16 February 2013 / Revised: 25 March 2013 / Accepted: 7 April 2013 / Published: 19 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Kidney Disease)
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Abstract

Aim: Uremic hyperparathyroidism (UHPT) has been shown to contribute to the development and progression of chronic kidney disease—mineral bone disorder. UHPT is frequently observed in chronic dialysis patients, and patients with UHPT are associated with increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Cinacalcet is a novel agent that increases sensitivity to the calcium-sensing receptor and is approved for control of UHPT. Nevertheless, cinacalcet is costly and information regarding efficacy of low-dose cinacalcet on UHPT is limited. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate treatment with either low-dose calcitriol combined with low-dose cinacalcet (25 mg) (d-Cinacalcet) or calcitriol alone (VitD) in dialysis patients with moderate to severe UHPT. A total of 81 dialysis patients were enrolled (40 subjects in d-Cinacalcet group and 41 subjects in VitD group). Demographic data including age, gender, duration on dialysis and biochemical data were reviewed and recorded. Results: At the end of the study, the intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels of the d-Cinacalcet group declined significantly (from 1166.0 ± 469.3 pg/mL to 679.8 ± 421.6 pg/mL, p < 0.0001), while there was no significant change in the VitD group. Significant decrease of serum calcium (Ca: 9.9 ± 0.6 mg/dL vs. 9.6 ± 0.8 mg/dL, p = 0.002), phosphorus (P: 5.9 ± 1.3 mg/dL vs. 4.9 ± 0.9 mg/dL, p < 0.0001) and calcium phosphate product (Ca × P: 58.7 ± 15.0 mg2/dL2 vs. 46.9 ± 8.9 mg2/dL2, p < 0.0001) were observed in the d-Cinacalcet group. In addition, the subjects in the d-Cinacalcet group had a greater proportion to achieve Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI)-recommended biochemical targets than the subjects in the VitD group (Ca: 48% vs. 24%; P: 78% vs. 32%; Ca × P: 85% vs. 37%; iPTH: 15% vs. 0%). Conclusions: We conclude that combination therapy of low-dose cinacalcet and calcitriol is more effective than calcitriol alone as a treatment for moderate and severe UHPT in chronic dialysis patients. Furthermore, this therapy is associated with improvement in hyperphosphatemia and hypercalcemia.
Keywords: cinacalcet; uremic hyperparathyroidism; dialysis; parathyroid hormone cinacalcet; uremic hyperparathyroidism; dialysis; parathyroid hormone
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Lee, Y.-T.; Ng, H.-Y.; Kuo, C.-C.; Chen, T.-C.; Wu, C.-S.; Chiu, T.T.-Y.; Lee, W.-C.; Lee, C.-T. Comparison between Calcitriol and Calcitriol Plus Low-Dose Cinacalcet for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Chronic Dialysis Patients. Nutrients 2013, 5, 1336-1348.

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