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Use of Dietary Supplements in Patients Seeking Treatment at a Periodontal Clinic
Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario, L2S 3A1, Canada
Reconstructive Periodontics and Implant Surgery Clinic, Fonthill, Ontario, L0S 1E5, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 February 2013; in revised form: 7 March 2013 / Accepted: 20 March 2013 / Published: 2 April 2013
Abstract: Dietary supplement use may modify the risk of periodontal disease but effects on wound healing after periodontal procedures are less clear. This study characterized dietary supplement use by male and female patients (n = 376) attending a periodontal clinic—information that is essential for evidence-based intervention studies that may improve patient outcomes after periodontal procedures. Calcium, vitamin D, multivitamin and vitamin C were most commonly used. A greater (p ≤ 0.05) number of males took no supplements compared to females, and more (p ≤ 0.05) females than males took ≥ four supplements. Females took more (p ≤ 0.05) calcium, vitamin D, fish oil, green tea, magnesium, omega 3,6,9 and B vitamin complex. Younger patients (31–50 years) had the highest (p ≤ 0.05) frequency of no supplement use compared to older age groups. Patients over age 50 had a higher (p ≤ 0.05) frequency of using ≥ four supplements including calcium and vitamin D. Supplement use was lower (p ≤ 0.05) in smokers, particularly for calcium, fish oil, green tea and vitamin D. In conclusion, females, older individuals and non-smokers have higher supplement use. Future dietary intervention studies can focus on supplements with known biological activities—anti-inflammatory, antioxidant or osteogenic activity—that may enhance wound healing after reconstructive periodontal procedures.
Keywords: dietary supplements; periodontal disease; supplement use; wound healing
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Johnston, B.D.; Fritz, P.C.; Ward, W.E. Use of Dietary Supplements in Patients Seeking Treatment at a Periodontal Clinic. Nutrients 2013, 5, 1110-1121.
Johnston BD, Fritz PC, Ward WE. Use of Dietary Supplements in Patients Seeking Treatment at a Periodontal Clinic. Nutrients. 2013; 5(4):1110-1121.
Johnston, Bryan D.; Fritz, Peter C.; Ward, Wendy E. 2013. "Use of Dietary Supplements in Patients Seeking Treatment at a Periodontal Clinic." Nutrients 5, no. 4: 1110-1121.