Next Article in Journal
Problems and Challenges to Adaptation of Gluten Free Diet by Indian Patients with Celiac Disease
Next Article in Special Issue
Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Implications for Lycopene Intervention
Previous Article in Journal
Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Imbalance Modifies NK Cytotoxicity, Lymphocytes B and Lymphoprolipheration in Aged Rats
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Influence of Vitamin A Supplementation on Iron Status
Nutrients 2013, 5(12), 4849-4868; doi:10.3390/nu5124849
Review

Mammalian Metabolism of β-Carotene: Gaps in Knowledge

 and *
Received: 14 October 2013; in revised form: 14 November 2013 / Accepted: 15 November 2013 / Published: 27 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitamin A and Carotenoids)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [466 KB, uploaded 27 November 2013]   |   Browse Figure
Abstract: β-carotene is the most abundant provitamin A carotenoid in human diet and tissues. It exerts a number of beneficial functions in mammals, including humans, owing to its ability to generate vitamin A as well as to emerging crucial signaling functions of its metabolites. Even though β-carotene is generally considered a safer form of vitamin A due to its highly regulated intestinal absorption, detrimental effects have also been ascribed to its intake, at least under specific circumstances. A better understanding of the metabolism of β-carotene is still needed to unequivocally discriminate the conditions under which it may exert beneficial or detrimental effects on human health and thus to enable the formulation of dietary recommendations adequate for different groups of individuals and populations worldwide. Here we provide a general overview of the metabolism of this vitamin A precursor in mammals with the aim of identifying the gaps in knowledge that call for immediate attention. We highlight the main questions that remain to be answered in regards to the cleavage, uptake, extracellular and intracellular transport of β-carotene as well as the interactions between the metabolism of β-carotene and that of other macronutrients such as lipids.
Keywords: β-carotene; β-carotene-15,15′-oxygenase; β-carotene-9′,10′-oxygenase; β-apocarotenoids; carotenoids; vitamin A; retinoids β-carotene; β-carotene-15,15′-oxygenase; β-carotene-9′,10′-oxygenase; β-apocarotenoids; carotenoids; vitamin A; retinoids
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Shete, V.; Quadro, L. Mammalian Metabolism of β-Carotene: Gaps in Knowledge. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4849-4868.

AMA Style

Shete V, Quadro L. Mammalian Metabolism of β-Carotene: Gaps in Knowledge. Nutrients. 2013; 5(12):4849-4868.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shete, Varsha; Quadro, Loredana. 2013. "Mammalian Metabolism of β-Carotene: Gaps in Knowledge." Nutrients 5, no. 12: 4849-4868.


Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert