Nutrients 2013, 5(11), 4642-4652; doi:10.3390/nu5114642
Article

Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism

1 Department of Health Promotion and Education, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA 2 Department of Endocrinology, Morbid Obesity and Preventive Medicine, Section of Preventive Cardiology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo N-0407, Norway 3 Department of Health Promotion and Education, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA 4 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA 5 Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA 6 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 October 2013; in revised form: 4 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 20 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vegan diets and Human health)
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Abstract: Diets eliminating animal products have rarely been associated with hypothyroidism but may protect against autoimmune disease. Thus, we investigated whether risk of hypothyroidism was associated with vegetarian compared to omnivorous dietary patterns. The Adventist Health Study-2 was conducted among church members in North America who provided data in a self-administered questionnaire. Hypothyroidism was queried at baseline in 2002 and at follow-up to 2008. Diet was examined as a determinant of prevalent (n = 4237 of 65,981 [6.4%]) and incident cases (1184 of 41,212 [2.9%]) in multivariate logistic regression models, controlled for demographics and salt use. In the prevalence study, in addition to demographic characterstics, overweight and obesity increased the odds (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.22–1.42 and 1.78, 95% CI: 1.64–1.93, respectively). Vegan versus omnivorous diets tended to be associated with reduced risk (OR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78–1.01, not statistically significant) while a lacto-ovo diet was associated with increased risk (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01–1.18). In the incidence study, female gender, white ethnicity, higher education and BMI were predictors of hypothyroidism. Following a vegan diet tended to be protective (OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59–1.03, not statistically significant). In conclusion, a vegan diet tended to be associated with lower, not higher, risk of hypothyroid disease.
Keywords: vegan; hypothyroidism; diet; prevalence; incidence

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tonstad, S.; Nathan, E.; Oda, K.; Fraser, G. Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4642-4652.

AMA Style

Tonstad S, Nathan E, Oda K, Fraser G. Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism. Nutrients. 2013; 5(11):4642-4652.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tonstad, Serena; Nathan, Edward; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary. 2013. "Vegan Diets and Hypothyroidism." Nutrients 5, no. 11: 4642-4652.

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