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Application of Dairy Proteins as Technological and Nutritional Improvers of Calcium-Supplemented Gluten-Free Bread
Department of Chemistry and Biodynamics of Food, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima St., 10, Olsztyn 10-748, Poland
Cereal Group, Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology (IATA-CSIC), Av Agustin Escardino 7, Paterna, Valencia 46980, Spain
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 August 2013; in revised form: 29 October 2013 / Accepted: 4 November 2013 / Published: 14 November 2013
Abstract: Effect of dairy proteins on gluten-free dough behavior, and nutritional and technological properties of gluten-free bread was evaluated. Experimental doughs, containing dairy powders, showed low consistency. Obtained gluten-free breads were rich in proteins, and, regarding the energy value delivered by proteins, they could be considered as a source of proteins or high in proteins. Applied dairy proteins affected the technological properties of experimental breads causing a significant (p < 0.05) increase of the specific volume, crust darkening, and crumb lightness, depending on the dairy supplementation level, rather than the protein type. Dairy proteins incorporated at a 12% level, significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the hardness; nevertheless, the highest amount of proteins tested led to the opposite effect. These results indicate that milk proteins tested could be successfully added to gluten-free bread with beneficial effects on technological and nutritional properties.
Keywords: dairy proteins; gluten-free bread; dough consistency; technological properties; nutritional value; celiac disease
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Krupa-Kozak, U.; Bączek, N.; Rosell, C.M. Application of Dairy Proteins as Technological and Nutritional Improvers of Calcium-Supplemented Gluten-Free Bread. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4503-4520.
Krupa-Kozak U, Bączek N, Rosell CM. Application of Dairy Proteins as Technological and Nutritional Improvers of Calcium-Supplemented Gluten-Free Bread. Nutrients. 2013; 5(11):4503-4520.
Krupa-Kozak, Urszula; Bączek, Natalia; Rosell, Cristina M. 2013. "Application of Dairy Proteins as Technological and Nutritional Improvers of Calcium-Supplemented Gluten-Free Bread." Nutrients 5, no. 11: 4503-4520.