Next Article in Journal
The Need for Evidence Based Nutritional Guidelines for Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients: Acute and Long-Term Following Treatment
Next Article in Special Issue
Weight Misperception, Self-Reported Physical Fitness, Dieting and Some Psychological Variables as Risk Factors for Eating Disorders
Previous Article in Journal
Advances in Nutritional Research on Regulatory T-Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Eating and Obesity—The New World Disorder
Nutrients 2013, 5(11), 4316-4332; doi:10.3390/nu5114316
Article

Red-Koji Fermented Red Ginseng Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders in Mice

1,†
, 2,†
, 3,*  and 3,*
Received: 28 August 2013; in revised form: 1 October 2013 / Accepted: 16 October 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eating Disorder and Obesity)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1047 KB, uploaded 30 October 2013]   |   Browse Figures
Abstract: Fermentation of medicinal herbs improves their pharmacological efficacy. In this study, we investigated the effects of red-koji fermented red ginseng (fRG) on high-fat diet (HFD)-mediated metabolic disorders, and those effects were compared to those of non-fermented red ginseng (RG). fRG (500, 250 or 125 mg/kg), RG (250 mg/kg), simvastatin (10 mg/kg), silymarin (100 mg/kg) and metformin (250 mg/kg) were orally administered from 1 week after initiation of HFD supply for 84 days. The diameter of adipocytes in periovarian and abdominal fat pads and the thickness of the abdominal fat were significantly decreased by fRG treatment, while HFD-mediated weight gain was partly alleviated by fRG in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, biochemical and histomorphometrical analyses clearly indicated that fRG significantly inhibited HFD-induced metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hepatopathy and nephropathy in a dose-dependent manner. More favorable pharmacological effects on HFD-mediated metabolic disorders were also observed with fRG compared to an equal dose of RG. This finding provides direct evidence that the pharmacological activities of RG were enhanced by red-koji fermentation, and fRG could be a neutraceutical resource for the alleviation of obesity-mediated metabolic disorders.
Keywords: fermentation; high fat diet; metabolic disorders; obesity; red-koji; red ginseng fermentation; high fat diet; metabolic disorders; obesity; red-koji; red ginseng
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, C.M.; Yi, S.J.; Cho, I.J.; Ku, S.K. Red-Koji Fermented Red Ginseng Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders in Mice. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4316-4332.

AMA Style

Kim CM, Yi SJ, Cho IJ, Ku SK. Red-Koji Fermented Red Ginseng Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders in Mice. Nutrients. 2013; 5(11):4316-4332.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Chang M.; Yi, Seong J.; Cho, Il J.; Ku, Sae K. 2013. "Red-Koji Fermented Red Ginseng Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders in Mice." Nutrients 5, no. 11: 4316-4332.


Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert