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Red-Koji Fermented Red Ginseng Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders in Mice
Department of Science Education, College of Education, Daegu University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-714, Korea
Department of Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea
MRC-GHF, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-715, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 August 2013; in revised form: 1 October 2013 / Accepted: 16 October 2013 / Published: 30 October 2013
Abstract: Fermentation of medicinal herbs improves their pharmacological efficacy. In this study, we investigated the effects of red-koji fermented red ginseng (fRG) on high-fat diet (HFD)-mediated metabolic disorders, and those effects were compared to those of non-fermented red ginseng (RG). fRG (500, 250 or 125 mg/kg), RG (250 mg/kg), simvastatin (10 mg/kg), silymarin (100 mg/kg) and metformin (250 mg/kg) were orally administered from 1 week after initiation of HFD supply for 84 days. The diameter of adipocytes in periovarian and abdominal fat pads and the thickness of the abdominal fat were significantly decreased by fRG treatment, while HFD-mediated weight gain was partly alleviated by fRG in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, biochemical and histomorphometrical analyses clearly indicated that fRG significantly inhibited HFD-induced metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hepatopathy and nephropathy in a dose-dependent manner. More favorable pharmacological effects on HFD-mediated metabolic disorders were also observed with fRG compared to an equal dose of RG. This finding provides direct evidence that the pharmacological activities of RG were enhanced by red-koji fermentation, and fRG could be a neutraceutical resource for the alleviation of obesity-mediated metabolic disorders.
Keywords: fermentation; high fat diet; metabolic disorders; obesity; red-koji; red ginseng
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Kim, C.M.; Yi, S.J.; Cho, I.J.; Ku, S.K. Red-Koji Fermented Red Ginseng Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders in Mice. Nutrients 2013, 5, 4316-4332.
Kim CM, Yi SJ, Cho IJ, Ku SK. Red-Koji Fermented Red Ginseng Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders in Mice. Nutrients. 2013; 5(11):4316-4332.
Kim, Chang M.; Yi, Seong J.; Cho, Il J.; Ku, Sae K. 2013. "Red-Koji Fermented Red Ginseng Ameliorates High Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders in Mice." Nutrients 5, no. 11: 4316-4332.