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Intake of Dairy Products in Relation to Periodontitis in Older Danish Adults
Research Unit for Dietary Studies, Institute of Preventive Medicine, Frederiksberg Hospital, Copenhagen, DK-2000, Denmark
Department for Community Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Faculty of Health Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DK-2200, Denmark
Copenhagen Gerontological Oral Health Research Centre, School of Dentistry, Faculty of Health Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DK-2200, Denmark
Department of Public Health, Section of Social Medicine, and Center for Healthy Aging, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DK-1014, Denmark
Danish Aging Research Center, Universities of Aarhus, Southern Denmark and Copenhagen, Aarhus, DK-5000, Denmark
Centre for Diabetes, Bart’s & The London School of Medicine & Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, E1 2AT, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 June 2012; in revised form: 23 July 2012 / Accepted: 14 August 2012 / Published: 4 September 2012
Abstract: This cross-sectional study investigates whether calcium intakes from dairy and non-dairy sources, and absolute intakes of various dairy products, are associated with periodontitis. The calcium intake (mg/day) of 135 older Danish adults was estimated by a diet history interview and divided into dairy and non-dairy calcium. Dairy food intake (g/day) was classified into four groups: milk, cheese, fermented foods and other foods. Periodontitis was defined as the number of teeth with attachment loss ≥3 mm. Intakes of total dairy calcium (Incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 0.97; p = 0.021), calcium from milk (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.025) and fermented foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.03) were inversely and significantly associated with periodontitis after adjustment for age, gender, education, sucrose intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, vitamin D intake, heart disease, visits to the dentist, use of dental floss and bleeding on probing, but non-dairy calcium, calcium from cheese and other types of dairy food intakes were not. Total dairy foods (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.003), milk (IRR = 0.96; p = 0.028) and fermented foods intakes (IRR = 0.97; p = 0.029) were associated with reduced risk of periodontitis, but cheese and other dairy foods intakes were not. These results suggest that dairy calcium, particularly from milk and fermented products, may protect against periodontitis. Prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.
Keywords: calcium; dairy products; elderly; oral health; periodontitis; vitamin D
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Adegboye, A.R.A.; Christensen, L.B.; Holm-Pedersen, P.; Avlund, K.; Boucher, B.J.; Heitmann, B.L. Intake of Dairy Products in Relation to Periodontitis in Older Danish Adults. Nutrients 2012, 4, 1219-1229.
Adegboye ARA, Christensen LB, Holm-Pedersen P, Avlund K, Boucher BJ, Heitmann BL. Intake of Dairy Products in Relation to Periodontitis in Older Danish Adults. Nutrients. 2012; 4(9):1219-1229.
Adegboye, Amanda R. A.; Christensen, Lisa B.; Holm-Pedersen, Poul; Avlund, Kirsten; Boucher, Barbara J.; Heitmann, Berit L. 2012. "Intake of Dairy Products in Relation to Periodontitis in Older Danish Adults." Nutrients 4, no. 9: 1219-1229.