Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 2047-2068; doi:10.3390/nu4122047
Review

Space Flight Calcium: Implications for Astronaut Health, Spacecraft Operations, and Earth

1,* email, 1email, 2email, 3email, 4,5email and 6email
Received: 11 October 2012; in revised form: 13 November 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Calcium)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: The space flight environment is known to induce bone loss and, subsequently, calcium loss. The longer the mission, generally the more bone and calcium are lost. This review provides a history of bone and calcium studies related to space flight and highlights issues related to calcium excretion that the space program must consider so that urine can be recycled. It also discusses a novel technique using natural stable isotopes of calcium that will be helpful in the future to determine calcium and bone balance during space flight.
Keywords: bed rest; bone; calcium; collagen crosslinks; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; space flight
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MDPI and ACS Style

Smith, S.M.; McCoy, T.; Gazda, D.; Morgan, J.L.L.; Heer, M.; Zwart, S.R. Space Flight Calcium: Implications for Astronaut Health, Spacecraft Operations, and Earth. Nutrients 2012, 4, 2047-2068.

AMA Style

Smith SM, McCoy T, Gazda D, Morgan JLL, Heer M, Zwart SR. Space Flight Calcium: Implications for Astronaut Health, Spacecraft Operations, and Earth. Nutrients. 2012; 4(12):2047-2068.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Smith, Scott M.; McCoy, Torin; Gazda, Daniel; Morgan, Jennifer L.L.; Heer, Martina; Zwart, Sara R. 2012. "Space Flight Calcium: Implications for Astronaut Health, Spacecraft Operations, and Earth." Nutrients 4, no. 12: 2047-2068.

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