Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 1958-1976; doi:10.3390/nu4121958
Article

The Association between the Macronutrient Content of Maternal Diet and the Adequacy of Micronutrients during Pregnancy in the Women and Their Children’s Health (WATCH) Study

1 School of Health Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308, Australia 2 Mothers and Babies Research Centre, Hunter Medical Research Institute, John Hunter Hospital, Level 3, Endocrinology, Locked Bag 1, Hunter Region Mail Centre, New South Wales 2310, Australia 3 School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308, Australia 4 School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia 5 Institute of Natural Sciences, Massey University, Albany 0632, New Zealand
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2012; in revised form: 23 November 2012 / Accepted: 29 November 2012 / Published: 6 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Infant Nutrition)
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Abstract: Nutrition during pregnancy can induce alterations in offspring phenotype. Maternal ratio of protein to non-protein (P:NP) energy has been linked to variations in offspring body composition and adult risk of metabolic disease. This study describes the dietary patterns of pregnant women by tertiles of the P:NP ratio and compares diet to Australian recommendations. Data are from 179 Australian women enrolled in the Women and Their Children’s Health Study. Diet was assessed using a validated 74-item food frequency questionnaire. Food group servings and nutrient intakes were compared to the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating and Australian Nutrient Reference Values. Higher maternal P:NP tertile was positively associated with calcium (P = 0.003), zinc (P = 0.001) and servings of dairy (P = 0.001) and meat (P = 0.001) food groups, and inversely associated with the energy dense, nutrient poor non-core (P = 0.003) food group. Micronutrient intakes were optimized with intermediate protein (18%E–20%E), intermediate fat (28%E–30%E) and intermediate carbohydrate (50%E–54%E) intakes, as indicated in tertile two. Results suggest a moderate protein intake may support pregnant women to consume the largest variety of nutrients across all food groups.
Keywords: maternal; pregnancy; dietary intake; nutrition; nutrient requirements; protein

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MDPI and ACS Style

Blumfield, M.; Hure, A.; MacDonald-Wicks, L.; Smith, R.; Simpson, S.; Raubenheimer, D.; Collins, C. The Association between the Macronutrient Content of Maternal Diet and the Adequacy of Micronutrients during Pregnancy in the Women and Their Children’s Health (WATCH) Study. Nutrients 2012, 4, 1958-1976.

AMA Style

Blumfield M, Hure A, MacDonald-Wicks L, Smith R, Simpson S, Raubenheimer D, Collins C. The Association between the Macronutrient Content of Maternal Diet and the Adequacy of Micronutrients during Pregnancy in the Women and Their Children’s Health (WATCH) Study. Nutrients. 2012; 4(12):1958-1976.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Blumfield, Michelle; Hure, Alexis; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Smith, Roger; Simpson, Stephen; Raubenheimer, David; Collins, Clare. 2012. "The Association between the Macronutrient Content of Maternal Diet and the Adequacy of Micronutrients during Pregnancy in the Women and Their Children’s Health (WATCH) Study." Nutrients 4, no. 12: 1958-1976.

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