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Molecular Nutrition Research—The Modern Way Of Performing Nutritional Science
Nutrients 2012, 4(12), 1945-1957; doi:10.3390/nu4121945
Article

Grape Consumption Increases Anti-Inflammatory Markers and Upregulates Peripheral Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Absence of Dyslipidemias in Men with Metabolic Syndrome

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Received: 23 October 2012; in revised form: 7 November 2012 / Accepted: 30 November 2012 / Published: 6 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Cardiovascular Diseases)
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Abstract: We evaluated the effects of grape consumption on inflammation and oxidation in the presence or absence of dyslipidemias in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Men with MetS (n = 24), 11 with high triglycerides and low HDL and 13 with no dyslipidemia were recruited and randomly allocated to consume daily either 46 g of lyophilized grape powder (GRAPE), equivalent to 252 g fresh grapes, or placebo with an identical macronutrient composition and caloric value as GRAPE for four weeks. After a three-week washout, participants followed the alternate treatment. We measured changes between placebo and GRAPE periods in inflammatory and oxidative stress markers both in circulation and in gene expression. Changes in plasma adiponectin (p < 0.05), interleukin (IL)-10 (p < 0.005) and in mRNA expression of the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (p < 0.25) were increased in the GRAPE compared to the placebo period only in those individuals without dyslipidemia. Additionally, plasma IL-10 was negatively correlated with NOX2 expression, a marker of oxidative stress (r = −0.55, p < 0.01), while iNOS expression was positively correlated with the expression of superoxide dismutase 2 (r = 0.642, p < 0.01), a key anti-oxidative enzyme. Grape consumption displayed anti-oxidative and increased anti-inflammatory markers in the absence of the inflammatory milieu associated with dyslipidemias.
Keywords: metabolic syndrome; dyslipidemia; grape polyphenols; IL-10; iNOS metabolic syndrome; dyslipidemia; grape polyphenols; IL-10; iNOS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Barona, J.; Blesso, C.N.; Andersen, C.J.; Park, Y.; Lee, J.; Fernandez, M.L. Grape Consumption Increases Anti-Inflammatory Markers and Upregulates Peripheral Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Absence of Dyslipidemias in Men with Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients 2012, 4, 1945-1957.

AMA Style

Barona J, Blesso CN, Andersen CJ, Park Y, Lee J, Fernandez ML. Grape Consumption Increases Anti-Inflammatory Markers and Upregulates Peripheral Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Absence of Dyslipidemias in Men with Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients. 2012; 4(12):1945-1957.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barona, Jacqueline; Blesso, Christopher N.; Andersen, Catherine J.; Park, Youngki; Lee, Jiyoung; Fernandez, Maria L. 2012. "Grape Consumption Increases Anti-Inflammatory Markers and Upregulates Peripheral Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Absence of Dyslipidemias in Men with Metabolic Syndrome." Nutrients 4, no. 12: 1945-1957.


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