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Aluminum Exposure in Neonatal Patients Using the Least Contaminated Parenteral Nutrition Solution Products
Department of Pharmacy, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford, 725 Welch Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Stanford University School of Medicine, 750 Welch Road, Suite 116, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 September 2012; in revised form: 16 October 2012 / Accepted: 23 October 2012 / Published: 2 November 2012
Abstract: Aluminum (Al) is a contaminant in all parenteral nutrition (PN) solution component products. Manufacturers currently label these products with the maximum Al content at the time of expiry. We recently published data to establish the actual measured concentration of Al in PN solution products prior to being compounded in the clinical setting . The investigation assessed quantitative Al content of all available products used in the formulation of PN solutions. The objective of this study was to assess the Al exposure in neonatal patients using the least contaminated PN solutions and determine if it is possible to meet the FDA “safe limit” of less than 5 μg/kg/day of Al. The measured concentrations from our previous study were analyzed and the least contaminated products were identified. These concentrations were entered into our PN software and the least possible Al exposure was determined. A significant decrease (41%–44%) in the Al exposure in neonatal patients can be achieved using the least contaminated products, but the FDA “safe limit” of less than 5 μg/kg/day of Al was not met. However, minimizing the Al exposure may decrease the likelihood of developing Al toxicity from PN.
Keywords: aluminum; parenteral nutrition; contamination; neonates; toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style
Poole, R.L.; Pieroni, K.P.; Gaskari, S.; Dixon, T.; Kerner, J.A. Aluminum Exposure in Neonatal Patients Using the Least Contaminated Parenteral Nutrition Solution Products. Nutrients 2012, 4, 1566-1574.
Poole RL, Pieroni KP, Gaskari S, Dixon T, Kerner JA. Aluminum Exposure in Neonatal Patients Using the Least Contaminated Parenteral Nutrition Solution Products. Nutrients. 2012; 4(11):1566-1574.
Poole, Robert L.; Pieroni, Kevin P.; Gaskari, Shabnam; Dixon, Tessa; Kerner, John A. 2012. "Aluminum Exposure in Neonatal Patients Using the Least Contaminated Parenteral Nutrition Solution Products." Nutrients 4, no. 11: 1566-1574.