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Nutrients 2011, 3(9), 818-838; doi:10.3390/nu3090818

Antioxidant and Antiradical Activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves and Other Selected Tropical Green Vegetables Investigated on Lipoperoxidation and Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) Activated Monocytes

1
Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Department of Pharmacy, Interfaculty Centre of Drug Research (CIRM), Faculty of Medicine, Hospital Avenue 1, B36, University of Liège, Sart Tilman, 4000 Liège 1, Belgium
2
Centre for Oxygen Research and Development (CORD), Institute of Chemistry B6a, University of Liège, Sart Tilman, 4000 Liège 1, Belgium
3
Department of Clinical Sciences, Large Animal Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, B41, University of Liège, Sart Tilman, 4000 Liège 1, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2011 / Revised: 29 August 2011 / Accepted: 1 September 2011 / Published: 16 September 2011
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Abstract

Abelmoschus esculentus (Malvaceae), Hibiscus acetosella (Malvaceae), Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) and Pteridium aquilinum (Dennstaedtiaceae) leaves are currently consumed as vegetables by migrants from sub-Saharan Africa living in Western Europe and by the people in the origin countries, where these plants are also used in the folk medicine. Manihot leaves are also eaten in Latin America and some Asian countries. This work investigated the capacity of aqueous extracts prepared from those vegetables to inhibit the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion. Short chain, volatile C-compounds as markers of advanced lipid peroxidation were measured by gas chromatography by following the ethylene production. The generation of lipid hydroperoxides, was monitored by spectroscopy using N-N′-dimethyl-p-phenylene-diamine (DMPD). The formation of intermediate peroxyl, and other free radicals, at the initiation of the lipid peroxidation was investigated by electron spin resonance, using α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone as spin trap agent. The ability of the extracts to decrease the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in “inflammation like” conditions was studied by fluorescence technique using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescine-diacetate as fluorogenic probe, in a cell model of human monocytes (HL-60 cells) activated with phorbol ester. Overall the extracts displayed efficient concentration-dependent inhibitory effects. Their total polyphenol and flavonoid content was determined by classic colorimetric methods. An HPLC-UV/DAD analysis has clearly identified the presence of some polyphenolic compounds, which explains at least partially the inhibitions observed in our models. The role of these plants in the folk medicine by sub-Saharan peoples as well as in the prevention of oxidative stress and ROS related diseases requires further consideration.
Keywords: monocytes; lipid peroxidation; reactive oxygen species; green vegetables; polyphenols; antioxidant monocytes; lipid peroxidation; reactive oxygen species; green vegetables; polyphenols; antioxidant
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tsumbu, C.N.; Deby-Dupont, G.; Tits, M.; Angenot, L.; Franck, T.; Serteyn, D.; Mouithys-Mickalad, A. Antioxidant and Antiradical Activities of Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves and Other Selected Tropical Green Vegetables Investigated on Lipoperoxidation and Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) Activated Monocytes. Nutrients 2011, 3, 818-838.

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