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Metabolomics as a Powerful Tool for Molecular Quality Assessment of the Fish Sparus aurata
Department of Food Science, University of Bologna, Piazza Goidanich 60, 47023 Cesena (FC), Italy
Quality & Technology, Department of Food Science, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Rolighedsvej 30, 1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark
Aquaculture and Fisheries Science Laboratories, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Viale Vespucci 2, 47042 Cesenatico (FC), Italy
Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy
Centre of Magnetic Resonance, University of Florence, Via L. Sacconi 6, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 December 2010; in revised form: 17 January 2011 / Accepted: 8 February 2011 / Published: 11 February 2011
Abstract: The molecular profiles of perchloric acid solutions extracted from the flesh of Sparus aurata fish specimens, produced according to different aquaculture systems, have been investigated. The 1H-NMR spectra of aqueous extracts are indicative of differences in the metabolite content of fish reared under different conditions that are already distinguishable at their capture, and substantially maintain the same differences in their molecular profiles after sixteen days of storage under ice. The fish metabolic profiles are studied by top-down chemometric analysis. The results of this exploratory investigation show that the fish metabolome accurately reflects the rearing conditions. The level of many metabolites co-vary with the rearing conditions and a few metabolites are quantified including glycogen (stress indicator), histidine, alanine and glycine which all display significant changes dependent on the aquaculture system and on the storage times.
Keywords: gilthead sea bream; fish; quality assessment; aquaculture; metabolic profile; 1H-NMR; metabolomics; chemometrics
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MDPI and ACS Style
Picone, G.; Balling Engelsen, S.; Savorani, F.; Testi, S.; Badiani, A.; Capozzi, F. Metabolomics as a Powerful Tool for Molecular Quality Assessment of the Fish Sparus aurata. Nutrients 2011, 3, 212-227.
Picone G, Balling Engelsen S, Savorani F, Testi S, Badiani A, Capozzi F. Metabolomics as a Powerful Tool for Molecular Quality Assessment of the Fish Sparus aurata. Nutrients. 2011; 3(2):212-227.
Picone, Gianfranco; Balling Engelsen, Søren; Savorani, Francesco; Testi, Silvia; Badiani, Anna; Capozzi, Francesco. 2011. "Metabolomics as a Powerful Tool for Molecular Quality Assessment of the Fish Sparus aurata." Nutrients 3, no. 2: 212-227.