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Nutrients 2011, 3(11), 951-961; doi:10.3390/nu3110951
Article

Higher Urinary Sodium, a Proxy for Intake, Is Associated with Increased Calcium Excretion and Lower Hip Bone Density in Healthy Young Women with Lower Calcium Intakes

1
 and
2,*
1 Diabetes Education Centre, Ross Memorial Hospital, 10 Angeline St N, Lindsay, Ontario K9V 4M8, Canada 2 University of British Columbia, 2205 East Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 October 2011 / Revised: 1 November 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 10 November 2011
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Abstract

We assessed 24-h urinary sodium (Na) and its relationship with urinary calcium (Ca) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the whole body, lumbar spine and total hip in a cross-sectional study. 102 healthy non-obese women completed timed 24-h urine collections which were analyzed for Na and Ca. Dietary intakes were estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants were grouped as those with lower vs. higher calcium intake by median split (506 mg/1000 kcal). Dietary Na intake correlated with 24-h urinary loss. Urinary Na correlated positively with urinary Ca for all participants (r = 0.29, p < 0.01) and among those with lower (r = 0.37, p < 0.01) but not higher calcium intakes (r = 0.19, p = 0.19). Urinary Na was inversely associated with hip aBMD for all participants (r = −0.21, p = 0.04) and among women with lower (r = −0.36, p < 0.01) but not higher (r = −0.05, p = 0.71) calcium intakes. Urinary Na also entered a regression equation for hip aBMD in women with lower Ca intakes, contributing 5.9% to explained variance. In conclusion, 24-h urinary Na (a proxy for intake) is associated with higher urinary Ca loss in young women and may affect aBMD, particularly in those with lower calcium intakes.
Keywords: urinary sodium; urinary calcium; bone mineral density; premenopausal women urinary sodium; urinary calcium; bone mineral density; premenopausal women
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Bedford, J.L.; Barr, S.I. Higher Urinary Sodium, a Proxy for Intake, Is Associated with Increased Calcium Excretion and Lower Hip Bone Density in Healthy Young Women with Lower Calcium Intakes. Nutrients 2011, 3, 951-961.

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