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Nutrients 2011, 3(11), 951-961; doi:10.3390/nu3110951
Article

Higher Urinary Sodium, a Proxy for Intake, Is Associated with Increased Calcium Excretion and Lower Hip Bone Density in Healthy Young Women with Lower Calcium Intakes

1
 and 2,*
Received: 4 October 2011; in revised form: 1 November 2011 / Accepted: 3 November 2011 / Published: 10 November 2011
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Abstract: We assessed 24-h urinary sodium (Na) and its relationship with urinary calcium (Ca) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the whole body, lumbar spine and total hip in a cross-sectional study. 102 healthy non-obese women completed timed 24-h urine collections which were analyzed for Na and Ca. Dietary intakes were estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants were grouped as those with lower vs. higher calcium intake by median split (506 mg/1000 kcal). Dietary Na intake correlated with 24-h urinary loss. Urinary Na correlated positively with urinary Ca for all participants (r = 0.29, p < 0.01) and among those with lower (r = 0.37, p < 0.01) but not higher calcium intakes (r = 0.19, p = 0.19). Urinary Na was inversely associated with hip aBMD for all participants (r = −0.21, p = 0.04) and among women with lower (r = −0.36, p < 0.01) but not higher (r = −0.05, p = 0.71) calcium intakes. Urinary Na also entered a regression equation for hip aBMD in women with lower Ca intakes, contributing 5.9% to explained variance. In conclusion, 24-h urinary Na (a proxy for intake) is associated with higher urinary Ca loss in young women and may affect aBMD, particularly in those with lower calcium intakes.
Keywords: urinary sodium; urinary calcium; bone mineral density; premenopausal women urinary sodium; urinary calcium; bone mineral density; premenopausal women
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bedford, J.L.; Barr, S.I. Higher Urinary Sodium, a Proxy for Intake, Is Associated with Increased Calcium Excretion and Lower Hip Bone Density in Healthy Young Women with Lower Calcium Intakes. Nutrients 2011, 3, 951-961.

AMA Style

Bedford JL, Barr SI. Higher Urinary Sodium, a Proxy for Intake, Is Associated with Increased Calcium Excretion and Lower Hip Bone Density in Healthy Young Women with Lower Calcium Intakes. Nutrients. 2011; 3(11):951-961.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bedford, Jennifer L.; Barr, Susan I. 2011. "Higher Urinary Sodium, a Proxy for Intake, Is Associated with Increased Calcium Excretion and Lower Hip Bone Density in Healthy Young Women with Lower Calcium Intakes." Nutrients 3, no. 11: 951-961.



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