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Nutrients 2010, 2(7), 725-736; doi:10.3390/nu2070725
Review

Lipophilic Compound-Mediated Gene Expression and Implication for Intervention in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Related Diseases: Mini-review

 and
*
Department of Nutrition, University of Nevada, Reno 1664 N, Nevada 89557-0208, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 May 2010 / Revised: 2 July 2010 / Accepted: 5 July 2010 / Published: 7 July 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Antioxidants)
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Abstract

In addition to exhibiting antioxidant properties, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E may modulate gene expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Depending on cellular microenvironments, such modulation reflects either antioxidant or prooxidant outcomes. Although epidemiological/experimental studies have indicated that CLA and vitamin E have health promoting properties, recent findings from clinical trials have been inconclusive. Discrepancies between the results found from prospective studies and recent clinical trials might be attributed to concentration-dependent cellular microenvironment alterations. We give a perspective of possible molecular mechanisms of actions of these lipophilic compounds and their implications for interventions of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related diseases.
Keywords: antioxidant; reactive oxygen species (ROS); atherosclerosis; conjugated linoleic acid (CLA); vitamin E (or α-tocopherol); peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ); nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) antioxidant; reactive oxygen species (ROS); atherosclerosis; conjugated linoleic acid (CLA); vitamin E (or α-tocopherol); peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ); nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Nakamura, Y.K.; Omaye, S.T. Lipophilic Compound-Mediated Gene Expression and Implication for Intervention in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Related Diseases: Mini-review. Nutrients 2010, 2, 725-736.

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