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NMR-Metabolic Methodology in the Study of GM Foods
Institute of Chemical Methodologies, Magnetic Resonance Laboratory “Annalaura Segre”, CNR, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo, Rome, Italy
Institute of Biology and Agricultural Biotechnology, CNR, Via Salaria km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo, Rome, Italy
Henry A. Wallace Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Sustainable Agricultural Systems Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland 20705–2350, USA
Chemistry Department, University of Rome “Sapienza”, p.le Aldo Moro, 5 00185, Rome, Italy
STAAM Department, University of Molise, Via De Sanctis, 86100 Campobasso, Italy
Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Rome “Sapienza”, p.le Aldo Moro, 5 00185, Rome, Italy
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 December 2009; Accepted: 8 January 2010 / Published: 13 January 2010
Abstract: The 1H-NMR methodology used in the study of genetically modified (GM) foods is discussed. Transgenic lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv \"Luxor\") over-expressing the Arabidopsis KNAT1 gene is presented as a case study. Twenty-two water-soluble metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, sugars) present in leaves of conventional and GM lettuce were monitored by NMR and quantified at two developmental stages. The NMR spectra did not reveal any difference in metabolite composition between the GM lettuce and the wild type counterpart. Statistical analyses of metabolite variables highlighted metabolism variation as a function of leaf development as well as the transgene. A main effect of the transgene was in altering sugar metabolism.
Keywords: NMR metabolic profiling; genetically modified food; transgenic lettuce
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Sobolev, A.P.; Capitani, D.; Giannino, D.; Nicolodi, C.; Testone, G.; Santoro, F.; Frugis, G.; Iannelli, M.A.; Mattoo, A.K.; Brosio, E.; Gianferri, R.; D’Amico, I.; Mannina, L. NMR-Metabolic Methodology in the Study of GM Foods. Nutrients 2010, 2, 1-15.
Sobolev AP, Capitani D, Giannino D, Nicolodi C, Testone G, Santoro F, Frugis G, Iannelli MA, Mattoo AK, Brosio E, Gianferri R, D’Amico I, Mannina L. NMR-Metabolic Methodology in the Study of GM Foods. Nutrients. 2010; 2(1):1-15.
Sobolev, Anatoly P.; Capitani, Donatella; Giannino, Donato; Nicolodi, Chiara; Testone, Giulio; Santoro, Flavio; Frugis, Giovanna; Iannelli, Maria A.; Mattoo, Autar K.; Brosio, Elvino; Gianferri, Raffaella; D’Amico, Irene; Mannina, Luisa. 2010. "NMR-Metabolic Methodology in the Study of GM Foods." Nutrients 2, no. 1: 1-15.