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Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091271

The Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency and Associated Factors in Pregnant Women Receiving Prenatal Care at a Reference Maternity Hospital in Northeastern Brazil

1
Maternal and Child Healthcare Postgraduate Program, Instituto de Medicina Integral, Prof.Fernando Figueira (IMIP), 50070-550 Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Lauro Wanderley University Hospital, Federal University of Paraíba (UFPB), 58059-900 João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil
3
Coordinator, Nursing Mentoring Program, Faculdade Pernambucana de Saúde (FPS), 51180-001 Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil
4
Department of Maternal and Child Healthcare, Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), 50670-901 Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil
5
Biological and Health Sciences Center, Catholic University of Pernambuco (UNICAP), 50050-900 Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil
6
Coordinator, Research Department, IMIP, 50070-550 Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 9 September 2018
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Abstract

Vitamin A is essential for mother and child; however, vitamin A deficiency (VAD) remains a public health issue in various countries, affecting around 19 million pregnant women. In Brazil, the scarcity and inconsistency of data have prevented the prevalence and epidemiological status of VAD from being established. This study aimed to analyze vitamin A nutritional status in women receiving prenatal care at a reference center in northeastern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 676 women. Serum retinol was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Subclinical infection was detected by measuring C-reactive protein (CRP). The World Health Organization criteria were used in the prevalence analysis, VAD classification level, and CRP effect evaluation. The prevalence of VAD (serum retinol <0.70 μmol/L) was 6.2% (95% confidence interval 4.5–8.3). In the univariate analysis, the variables significantly associated with VAD (p < 0.05) were having <12 years of schooling, being in the third trimester of pregnancy, and anemia. In the final multivariate model, the variables that remained significantly associated (p < 0.05) were being in the third trimester of pregnancy and anemia. VAD constituted a mild public health problem in this sample of pregnant women and was associated with the third trimester of pregnancy and maternal anemia. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin A deficiency; pregnancy; prevalence; risk factors vitamin A deficiency; pregnancy; prevalence; risk factors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Bastos Maia, S.; Costa Caminha, M.F.; Lins da Silva, S.; Rolland Souza, A.S.; Carvalho dos Santos, C.; Batista Filho, M. The Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency and Associated Factors in Pregnant Women Receiving Prenatal Care at a Reference Maternity Hospital in Northeastern Brazil. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1271.

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