Next Article in Journal
The Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency and Associated Factors in Pregnant Women Receiving Prenatal Care at a Reference Maternity Hospital in Northeastern Brazil
Previous Article in Journal
Association between Anaemia in Children 6 to 23 Months Old and Child, Mother, Household and Feeding Indicators
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Nutrients 2018, 10(9), 1270; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091270

Maternal Iodine Status is Associated with Offspring Language Skills in Infancy and Toddlerhood

1
Institute of Marine Research, P.O box 1870 Nordnes, 5817 Bergen, Norway
2
Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway
3
Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0456 Oslo, Norway
4
Department of Nutrition, TINE SA, 0902 Oslo, Norway
5
Regional Centre for Child and Youth Mental Health and Child Welfare, Uni Research Health, Uni Research, P.O box 7810, 5020 Bergen, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 9 September 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [1199 KB, uploaded 11 September 2018]   |  

Abstract

Inadequate iodine status affects the synthesis of the thyroid hormones and may impair brain development in fetal life. The aim of this study was to explore the association between maternal iodine status in pregnancy measured by urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and child neurodevelopment at age 6, 12 and 18 months in a population-based cohort. In total, 1036 families from nine locations in Norway were enrolled in the little in Norway cohort. The present study includes n = 851 mother-child pairs with singleton pregnancies, no use of thyroid medication in pregnancy, no severe genetic disorder, data on exposure (UIC) in pregnancy and developmental outcomes (Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition). Data collection also included general information from questionnaires. We examined associations between UIC (and use of iodine-containing supplements) and repeated measures of developmental outcomes using multivariable mixed models. The median UIC in pregnancy was 78 µg/L (IQR 46–130), classified as insufficient iodine intake according to the WHO. Eighteen percent reported use of iodine-containing multisupplements. A UIC below ~100 was associated with reduced receptive (p = 0.025) and expressive language skills (p = 0.002), but not with reduced cognitive or fine- and gross motor skills. Maternal use of iodine-containing supplements was associated with lower gross motor skills (b = −0.18, 95% CI = −0.33, −0.03, p = 0.02), but not with the other outcome measures. In conclusion, an insufficient iodine intake in pregnancy, reflected in a UIC below ~100 µg/L, was associated with lower infant language skills up to 18 months. The use of iodine-containing supplements was not associated with beneficial effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: Bayley; cohort; pregnancy; iodine status; iodine supplementation; infants; ICP-MS; mild to moderate iodine deficiency; neurodevelopment; urinary iodine concentration Bayley; cohort; pregnancy; iodine status; iodine supplementation; infants; ICP-MS; mild to moderate iodine deficiency; neurodevelopment; urinary iodine concentration
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Markhus, M.W.; Dahl, L.; Moe, V.; Abel, M.H.; Brantsæter, A.L.; Øyen, J.; Meltzer, H.M.; Stormark, K.M.; Graff, I.E.; Smith, L.; Kjellevold, M. Maternal Iodine Status is Associated with Offspring Language Skills in Infancy and Toddlerhood. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1270.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top