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Nutrients 2018, 10(8), 1045; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10081045

Macronutrient Composition of the Australian Population’s Diet; Trends from Three National Nutrition Surveys 1983, 1995 and 2012

Nutrition and Dietetics Discipline, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney 2006, Australia
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Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 23 July 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 8 August 2018
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Abstract

Although the role of individual macronutrients in the development of obesity remains controversial, changes in macronutrient composition of the diet may have played a causal role in the obesity epidemic. The aim of this analysis was to determine the percentage energy (%E) for protein, carbohydrate and fat of Australian adults’ diets over time. Cross-sectional, national nutrition surveys from 1983, 1995 and 2012 assessed diet using one 24 h recall. The prevalence of obesity increased between each survey, from 9.6% to 19.7% and 27.7%. Protein (%E) differed between each survey and contributed 17.7%, 16.8% and 18.3% energy in 1983, 1995 and 2012, respectively (p < 0.001). Carbohydrate (%E) increased from 40.0% in 1983 to 44.9% in 1995 (p < 0.001), with no change in dietary fibre but declined in 2012 to 43.1%. Fat (%E) declined between each survey from 35.3%, 31.9%, to 30.9%, respectively (p < 0.001). Alcohol (%E) has declined for younger adults and men but intake increased for women aged >45 years. Prospective cohort studies with comprehensive assessment of foods consumed, together with measurements of weight and height, will advance the understanding of the relationship between macronutrients and changes in body weight and obesity. View Full-Text
Keywords: overweight; macronutrients; dietary energy; sugar-sweetened beverages; dietary carbohydrate; dietary fat; dietary protein overweight; macronutrients; dietary energy; sugar-sweetened beverages; dietary carbohydrate; dietary fat; dietary protein
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Grech, A.; Rangan, A.; Allman-Farinelli, M. Macronutrient Composition of the Australian Population’s Diet; Trends from Three National Nutrition Surveys 1983, 1995 and 2012. Nutrients 2018, 10, 1045.

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