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Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070887

Dietary Patterns, Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness in 9–11-Year-Old Children from Dunedin, New Zealand

1
Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
2
Department of Exercise and Sports Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27519, USA
3
Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
4
Cancer Society Social and Behavioural Research Unit, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
5
Centre for Community Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 50300, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet, lifestyle and cardiometabolic health in vulnerable populations)
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Abstract

Research shows that cardiorespiratory (CRF) and muscular fitness in childhood are associated with a healthier cardiovascular profile in adulthood. Identifying factors associated with measures of fitness in childhood could allow for strategies to optimize cardiovascular health throughout the lifecourse. The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns and both CRF and muscular fitness in 9–11-year-olds. In this study of 398 children, CRF and muscular fitness were assessed using a 20-m shuttle run test and digital hand dynamometer, respectively. Dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis. Mixed effects linear regression models were used to assess associations between dietary patterns and CRF and muscular fitness. Most children had healthy CRF (99%, FITNESSGRAM) and mean ± SD muscular fitness was 15.2 ± 3.3 kg. Two dietary patterns were identified; “Snacks” and “Fruit and Vegetables”. There were no significant associations between either of the dietary patterns and CRF. Statistically significant but not clinically meaningful associations were seen between dietary patterns and muscular fitness. In an almost exclusively fit cohort, food choice is not meaningfully related to measures of fitness. Further research to investigate diet-fitness relationships in children with lower fitness levels can identify key populations for potential investments in health-promoting behaviors. View Full-Text
Keywords: V ˙ O2max; handgrip strength; data-driven dietary patterns; children; New Zealand V ˙ O2max; handgrip strength; data-driven dietary patterns; children; New Zealand
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Saeedi, P.; Black, K.E.; Haszard, J.J.; Skeaff, S.; Stoner, L.; Davidson, B.; Harrex, H.A.L.; Meredith-Jones, K.; Quigg, R.; Wong, J.E.; Skidmore, P.M.L. Dietary Patterns, Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness in 9–11-Year-Old Children from Dunedin, New Zealand. Nutrients 2018, 10, 887.

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