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Nutrients 2018, 10(7), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10070880

The Effect of Food Unit Sizes and Meal Serving Occasions on Eating Behaviour Characteristics: Within Person Randomised Crossover Studies on Healthy Women

1
Innovative use of mobile phones to promote physical activity and nutrition across the lifespan (the IMPACT) research group, Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, 14152 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Division of Applied Neuroendocrinology, Department of Neurobiology, Care sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, 14152 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 2 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 8 July 2018
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Abstract

Manipulating food properties and serving environment during a meal can significantly change food intake at group level. However, the evaluation of the usefulness of such manipulations requires an understanding of individual behavioural changes. Three studies were conducted to explore the effect of unit size and meal occasion on eating behaviour characteristics (food intake, meal duration, number of bites and chews). All studies used a randomised crossover design, with a one-week wash-out period, starting with a familiarisation meal, with the participation of healthy, normal weight females between the ages of 18–35 years. In Study 1 (n = 19) three cube sizes (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm3) of vegetable hash and chicken were compared. In Study 2 (n = 18) mashed potatoes and mincemeat were compared to whole potatoes and meatballs. In Study 3 (n = 29) meals served at lunch time (11:00–13:00) were compared to identical meals served at dinner time (17:00–19:00). The largest food unit size lead to significantly increased meal duration in Study 2 (mean difference 0.9 min, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.0–1.8), but not in Study 1 (mean difference 1 min, 95% CI 0.1–2.0). There was a significant increase in number of chews in the large unit size condition of both Study 1 (mean difference 88, 95% CI 12–158) and Study 2 (mean difference 95, 95% CI 12–179). Different serving occasions did not significantly change any of the eating behaviours measured. Except for number of bites in Study 2 (R2 = 0.60), most individuals maintained their eating behaviour relative to the group across unit sizes and serving occasions conditions (R2 > 0.75), which suggests single meal testing can provide information about the behavioural characteristics of individual eating styles under different conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: group ranking; meal duration; food intake; chewing; bites; eating behavior group ranking; meal duration; food intake; chewing; bites; eating behavior
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Langlet, B.; Tang Bach, M.; Odegi, D.; Fagerberg, P.; Ioakimidis, I. The Effect of Food Unit Sizes and Meal Serving Occasions on Eating Behaviour Characteristics: Within Person Randomised Crossover Studies on Healthy Women. Nutrients 2018, 10, 880.

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