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Nutrients 2018, 10(6), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10060712

Spirulina maxima Extract Reduces Obesity through Suppression of Adipogenesis and Activation of Browning in 3T3-L1 Cells and High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Life Science, CHA University, Seongnam, Kyeonggi 463-400, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Received: 8 May 2018 / Revised: 30 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
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Abstract

Obesity predisposes animals towards the metabolic syndrome and diseases such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease. Spirulina maxima is a microalga with anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, and neuroprotective activities, but the anti-obesity effect of Spirulina maxima 70% ethanol extract (SM70EE) has not yet been fully established. We investigated the effect of SM70EE on adipogenesis, lipogenesis, and browning using in vitro and in vivo obesity models. SM70EE treatment reduced lipid droplet accumulation by the oil red O staining method and downregulated the adipogenic proteins C/EBPα, PPARγ, and aP2, and the lipogenic proteins SREBP1, ACC, FAS, LPAATβ, Lipin1, and DGAT1 by western blot analysis. In addition, the index components of SM70EE, chlorophyll a, and C-phycocyanin, reduced adipogenesis and lipogenesis protein levels in 3T3-L1 and C3H10T1/2 cells. High-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice administered with SM70EE demonstrated smaller adipose depots and lower blood lipid concentrations than control HFD-fed mice. The lower body mass gain in treated SM70EE-administrated mice was associated with lower protein expression of adipogenesis factors and higher expression of AMPKα-induced adipose browning proteins PRDM16, PGC1α, and UCP1. SM70EE administration ameliorates obesity, likely by reducing adipogenesis and activating the thermogenic program, in 3T3-L1 cells and HFD-induced obese mice. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; Spirulina maxima; adipogenesis; browning; 3T3-L1 cells; HFD-induced obese mice obesity; Spirulina maxima; adipogenesis; browning; 3T3-L1 cells; HFD-induced obese mice
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Seo, Y.-J.; Kim, K.-J.; Choi, J.; Koh, E.-J.; Lee, B.-Y. Spirulina maxima Extract Reduces Obesity through Suppression of Adipogenesis and Activation of Browning in 3T3-L1 Cells and High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice. Nutrients 2018, 10, 712.

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