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Nutrients 2018, 10(5), 627; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10050627

Evaluation of Energy Expenditure and Oxidation of Energy Substrates in Adult Males after Intake of Meals with Varying Fat and Carbohydrate Content

1
Clinical Research Centre, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok 15-276, Poland
2
Department of Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok 15-054, Poland
3
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology and Internal Medicine, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok 15-276, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 14 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Appetite, Metabolism and Obesity)
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Abstract

Obesity is a result of positive energy balance. The aim of this study was to measure (in crossover trials) the energy expenditure and oxidation of glucose and lipids, both at the fasting state and after an intake of meals with a varying macronutrient content, in normal-weight and overweight/obese people. In the study, 46 healthy adult males (23 with normal body weight and 23 overweight/obese), aged 21–58, were examined. During two consecutive visits, subjects received isocaloric standardized meals (450 kcal) with different content of basic nutrients. Resting metabolic rate and carbohydrate and fat utilization were evaluated during the fasting state and postprandially, using an indirect calorimetry method. Energy expenditure was higher in people with normal body weight and slightly higher after the high-carbohydrate meal. In overweight/obese people, increased expenditure was noted after normo-carbohydrate meal intake. The high-fat meal induced lower postprandial thermal response compared to a high-carbohydrate meal, both in people with normal body weight and in overweight/obese men. Glucose utilization was higher after the high-carbohydrate meal, and it was higher in the normal body weight group than in overweight/obese people. In addition, overweight/obese people showed a lower level of fatty acid oxidation under fasting conditions which, together with limited ability to oxidize energy substrates, depending on their availability, indicates that these people are characterized by lower metabolic flexibility. View Full-Text
Keywords: obesity; adults; energy expenditure; glucose utilization; lipid oxidation obesity; adults; energy expenditure; glucose utilization; lipid oxidation
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Adamska-Patruno, E.; Ostrowska, L.; Golonko, A.; Pietraszewska, B.; Goscik, J.; Kretowski, A.; Gorska, M. Evaluation of Energy Expenditure and Oxidation of Energy Substrates in Adult Males after Intake of Meals with Varying Fat and Carbohydrate Content. Nutrients 2018, 10, 627.

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