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Nutrients 2018, 10(4), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040429

Both Mother and Infant Require a Vitamin D Supplement to Ensure That Infants’ Vitamin D Status Meets Current Guidelines

1
Departments of Family Medicine and Community Health Sciences, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
2
Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R3, Canada
3
Faculty of Nursing and Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
4
Department of Pediatrics, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 23 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract

We examined the association between maternal vitamin D intake during breastfeeding with their infants’ vitamin D status in infants who did or did not receive vitamin D supplements to determine whether infant supplementation was sufficient. Using plasma from a subset of breastfed infants in the APrON (Alberta Pregnant Outcomes and Nutrition) cohort, vitamin D status was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Maternal and infants’ dietary data were obtained from APrON’s dietary questionnaires. The median maternal vitamin D intake was 665 International Units (IU)/day, while 25% reported intakes below the recommended 400 IU/day. Of the 224 infants in the cohort, 72% were exclusively breastfed, and 90% were receiving vitamin D supplements. Infants’ median 25(OH)D was 96.0 nmol/L (interquartile ranges (IQR) 77.6–116.2), and 25% had 25(OH)D < 75 nmol/L. An adjusted linear regression model showed that, with a 100 IU increase in maternal vitamin D intake, infants’ 25(OH)D increased by 0.9 nmol/L controlling for race, season, mid-pregnancy maternal 25(OH)D, birthweight, and whether the infant received daily vitamin D supplement (β = 0.008, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.002, 0.13). These results suggest that, to ensure infant optimal vitamin D status, not only do infants require a supplement, but women also need to meet current recommended vitamin D intake during breastfeeding. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin D; 25(OH)D; breastfeeding; pregnancy; infant vitamin D; 25(OH)D; breastfeeding; pregnancy; infant
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Aghajafari, F.; Field, C.J.; Weinberg, A.R.; Letourneau, N.; APrON Study Team. Both Mother and Infant Require a Vitamin D Supplement to Ensure That Infants’ Vitamin D Status Meets Current Guidelines. Nutrients 2018, 10, 429.

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