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Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020236

Chronic Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate High Fat Diet Has Minimal Effects on Acid–Base Status in Elite Athletes

1
Centre for Sport Research, Deakin University, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia
2
Physiology, Australian Institute of Sport, Bruce, ACT 2617, Australia
3
Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, University of Canberra, Belconnen, ACT 2616, Australia
4
Sports Nutrition, Australian Institute of Sport, Bruce, ACT 2617, Australia
5
Mary MacKillop Institute for Health Research, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC 3000, Australia
6
Innovation, Research and Development, Australian Institute of Sport, Bruce, ACT 2617, Australia
7
School of Health and Sport Sciences, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, QLD 4558, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 January 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 18 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Although short (up to 3 days) exposure to major shifts in macronutrient intake appears to alter acid–base status, the effects of sustained (>1 week) interventions in elite athletes has not been determined. Using a non-randomized, parallel design, we examined the effect of adaptations to 21 days of a ketogenic low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) or periodized carbohydrate (PCHO) diet on pre- and post-exercise blood pH, and concentrations of bicarbonate [HCO3] and lactate [La] in comparison to a high carbohydrate (HCHO) control. Twenty-four (17 male and 7 female) elite-level race walkers completed 21 days of either LCHF (n = 9), PCHO (n = 7), or HCHO (n = 8) under controlled diet and training conditions. At baseline and post-intervention, blood pH, blood [HCO3], and blood [La] were measured before and after a graded exercise test. Net endogenous acid production (NEAP) over the previous 48–72 h was also calculated from monitored dietary intake. LCHF was not associated with significant differences in blood pH, [HCO3], or [La], compared with the HCHO diet pre- or post-exercise, despite a significantly higher NEAP (mEq·day−1) (95% CI = (10.44; 36.04)). Our results indicate that chronic dietary interventions are unlikely to influence acid–base status in elite athletes, which may be due to pre-existing training adaptations, such as an enhanced buffering capacity, or the actions of respiratory and renal pathways, which have a greater influence on regulation of acid–base status than nutritional intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary interventions; periodized carbohydrate diet; fat adaptation; keto-adaptation dietary interventions; periodized carbohydrate diet; fat adaptation; keto-adaptation
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Carr, A.J.; Sharma, A.P.; Ross, M.L.; Welvaert, M.; Slater, G.J.; Burke, L.M. Chronic Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate High Fat Diet Has Minimal Effects on Acid–Base Status in Elite Athletes. Nutrients 2018, 10, 236.

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