Next Article in Journal
The Effect of Oligofructose-Enriched Inulin on Faecal Bacterial Counts and Microbiota-Associated Characteristics in Celiac Disease Children Following a Gluten-Free Diet: Results of a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Next Article in Special Issue
Resveratrol in Patients with Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy
Previous Article in Journal
Zinc and Skin Disorders
Previous Article in Special Issue
Aged Oolong Tea Reduces High-Fat Diet-Induced Fat Accumulation and Dyslipidemia by Regulating the AMPK/ACC Signaling Pathway
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020200

Dietary Inflammatory Index and Cardiovascular Risk and Mortality—A Meta-Analysis

1
Cancer Prevention and Control Program, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
2
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
3
Connecting Health Innovations, LLC, Columbia, SC 29201, USA
4
NNEdPro Global Centre for Nutrition and Health, St John’s Innovation Centre, Cambridge CB4 0WS, UK
5
College of Nursing, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA
6
Inflammation Society, 18 Woodlands Park, Bexley DA52EL, UK
7
Integrated Cancer Registry of Catania-Messina-Siracusa-Enna, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Policlinico Vittorio Emanuele, 95123 Catania, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 29 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 12 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Polyphenol-Rich Foods on Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [998 KB, uploaded 12 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

Diet and chronic inflammation have been suggested to be risk factors in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related mortality. The possible link between the inflammatory potential of diet measured through the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII®) and CVD has been investigated in several populations across the world. The aim of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis on studies exploring this association. Data from 14 studies were eligible, of which two were case-control, eleven were cohort, and one was cross-sectional. Results from the random-effects meta-analysis showed a positive association between increasing DII, indicating a pro-inflammatory diet, and CVD. Individuals in the highest versus the lowest (reference) DII category showed a 36% increased risk of CVD incidence and mortality, with moderate evidence of heterogeneity (relative risk (RR) = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.19, 1.57; heterogeneity index I2 = 69%, p < 0.001). When analyzed as a continuous variable, results showed an increased risk of CVD risk and mortality of 8% for each one-point increase in the DII score. Results remained unchanged when analyses were restricted to the prospective studies. Results of our meta-analysis support the importance of adopting a healthier anti-inflammatory diet for preventing CVD incidence and related mortality. In conclusion, a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with increased risk of CVD and CVD mortality. These results further substantiate the utility of DII as tool to characterize the inflammatory potential of diet and to predict CVD incidence and mortality. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; cytokines; nutrition; inflammation; epidemiology; dietary inflammatory index; cardiovascular diseases; meta-analysis diet; cytokines; nutrition; inflammation; epidemiology; dietary inflammatory index; cardiovascular diseases; meta-analysis
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Shivappa, N.; Godos, J.; Hébert, J.R.; Wirth, M.D.; Piuri, G.; Speciani, A.F.; Grosso, G. Dietary Inflammatory Index and Cardiovascular Risk and Mortality—A Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2018, 10, 200.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Nutrients EISSN 2072-6643 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top