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Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 189; doi:10.3390/nu10020189

A Plant-Based Dietary Intervention Improves Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Adults: A 16-Week Randomized Clinical Trial

1
Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, Washington, DC 20016, USA
2
Metabolic Unit, CNR Institute of Neuroscience, 35127 Padua, Italy
3
Institute of Endocrinology, 11394 Prague, Czech Republic
4
School of Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84132, USA
5
Adjunct Faculty, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC 20016, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 9 February 2018
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to test the effect of a plant-based dietary intervention on beta-cell function in overweight adults with no history of diabetes. Participants (n = 75) were randomized to follow a low-fat plant-based diet (n = 38) or to make no diet changes (n = 37) for 16 weeks. At baseline and 16 weeks, beta-cell function was quantified with a mathematical model. Using a standard meal test, insulin secretory rate was calculated by C-peptide deconvolution. The Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR) index was used to assess insulin resistance while fasting. A marked increase in meal-stimulated insulin secretion was observed in the intervention group compared with controls (interaction between group and time, Gxt, p < 0.001). HOMA-IR index fell significantly (p < 0.001) in the intervention group (treatment effect −1.0 (95% CI, −1.2 to −0.8); Gxt, p = 0.004). Changes in HOMA-IR correlated positively with changes in body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat volume (r = 0.34; p = 0.009 and r = 0.42; p = 0.001, respectively). The latter remained significant after adjustment for changes in BMI (r = 0.41; p = 0.002). Changes in glucose-induced insulin secretion correlated negatively with BMI changes (r = −0.25; p = 0.04), but not with changes in visceral fat. Beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity were significantly improved through a low-fat plant-based diet in overweight adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: beta-cell function; diet; nutrition; diabetes; vegan beta-cell function; diet; nutrition; diabetes; vegan
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Kahleova, H.; Tura, A.; Hill, M.; Holubkov, R.; Barnard, N.D. A Plant-Based Dietary Intervention Improves Beta-Cell Function and Insulin Resistance in Overweight Adults: A 16-Week Randomized Clinical Trial. Nutrients 2018, 10, 189.

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