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Nutrients 2018, 10(2), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10020154

Validation of the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised Using Biomarkers in Children and Adolescents

1
Department of Pediatrics, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Bandeirantes Avenue, 3900, Ribeirão Preto 14049-900, Brazil
2
Nestlé Institute of Health Sciences, Innovation Square, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Campus, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Patterns, Diet Quality and Human Health)
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Abstract

The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) can be used to determine overall dietary patterns. We assessed the BHEI-R scores in children and adolescents, aged from 9 to 13 years old, and associated its component scores with biomarkers of health and dietary exposure. Three 24-h recalls were used to generate BHEI-R. Biomarkers were analyzed in plasma and red blood cells. Correlation tests, agreement, and covariance analyses were used to associate BHEI-R components with biomarkers. Data from 167 subjects were used. The strongest correlations were between fruits, vegetables and legumes with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, and β-carotene intakes. Milk and dairy correlated with plasma retinol and pyridoxine. All components rich in vegetable and animal protein sources correlated with plasma creatine. Total BHEI-R scores were positively associated with intakes of omega-6, omega-3, fiber and vitamin C, and inversely associated with energy and saturated fat intakes of individuals. Plasma β-carotene and riboflavin biomarkers were positively associated with total BHEI-R. An inadequate food consumption pattern was captured by both biomarkers of health and dietary exposure. BHEI-R was validated for the above dietary components and can be associated with metabolomics and nutritional epidemiological data in future pediatric studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised; biomarkers; children; adolescents Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised; biomarkers; children; adolescents
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Toffano, R.B.D.; Hillesheim, E.; Mathias, M.G.; Coelho-Landell, C.A.; Salomão, R.G.; Almada, M.O.R.V.; Camarneiro, J.M.; Barros, T.T.; Camelo-Junior, J.S.; Rezzi, S.; Goulet, L.; Giner, M.P.; Silva, L.D.; Martin, F.-P.; Montoliu, I.; Moco, S.; Collino, S.; Kaput, J.; Monteiro, J.P. Validation of the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised Using Biomarkers in Children and Adolescents. Nutrients 2018, 10, 154.

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