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Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10010094

Amaranthus caudatus Stimulates Insulin Secretion in Goto-Kakizaki Rats, a Model of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

1
Instituto de Investigaciones Farmaco Bioquimicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Avenida Saavedra 2224, La Paz 2314, Bolivia
2
Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
3
Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7015, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
4
Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
5
Centrum for Diabetes, Academic Specialist Centrum, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease)
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Abstract

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 prevalence is increasing worldwide; thus efforts to develop novel therapeutic strategies are required. Amaranthus caudatus (AC) is a pseudo-cereal with reported anti-diabetic effects that is usually consumed in food preparations in Bolivia. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic nutraceutical property of an AC hydroethanolic extract that contains mainly sugars and traces of polyphenols and amino acids (as shown by nalysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)), in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and healthy Wistar (W) rats. A single oral administration of AC extract (2000 mg/kg body weight) improved glucose tolerance during Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests (OGTT) in both GK rats and in W rats. Long-term treatment (21 days) with AC (1000 mg/kg b.w.) improved the glucose tolerance evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose levels during the OGTT, in both GK and W rats. The HbA1c levels were reduced in both GK (19.83%) and W rats (10.7%). This effect was secondary to an increase in serum insulin levels in both GK and W rats and confirmed in pancreatic islets, isolated from treated animals, where the chronic AC exposure increased the insulin production 4.1-fold in GK and 3.7-fold in W rat islets. Furthermore, the effect of AC on in vitro glucose-dependent insulin secretion (16.7 mM glucose) was concentration-dependent up to 50 mg/mL, with 8.5-fold increase in GK and 5.7-fold in W rat islets, and the insulin secretion in perifused GK and W rat islets increased 31 and nine times, respectively. The mechanism of action of AC on insulin secretion was shown to involve calcium, PKA and PKC activation, and G-protein coupled-exocytosis since the AC effect was reduced 38% by nifedipine (L-type channel inhibitor), 77% by H89 (PKA inhibitor), 79% by Calphostine-C (PKC inhibitor) and 20% by pertussis toxin (G-protein suppressor). View Full-Text
Keywords: Amaranthus caudatus; nutraceutical; natural product; diabetes mellitus type 2 diabetes; insulin secretion; Goto-Kakizaki rats Amaranthus caudatus; nutraceutical; natural product; diabetes mellitus type 2 diabetes; insulin secretion; Goto-Kakizaki rats
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Zambrana, S.; Lundqvist, L.C.E.; Veliz, V.; Catrina, S.-B.; Gonzales, E.; Östenson, C.-G. Amaranthus caudatus Stimulates Insulin Secretion in Goto-Kakizaki Rats, a Model of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. Nutrients 2018, 10, 94.

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