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Nutrients 2018, 10(1), 94; doi:10.3390/nu10010094

Amaranthus caudatus Stimulates Insulin Secretion in Goto-Kakizaki Rats, a Model of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Instituto de Investigaciones Farmaco Bioquimicas, Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Avenida Saavedra 2224, La Paz 2314, Bolivia
Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7015, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden
Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, Karolinska University Hospital, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
Centrum for Diabetes, Academic Specialist Centrum, 141 86 Stockholm, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Disease)
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Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 prevalence is increasing worldwide; thus efforts to develop novel therapeutic strategies are required. Amaranthus caudatus (AC) is a pseudo-cereal with reported anti-diabetic effects that is usually consumed in food preparations in Bolivia. This study evaluated the anti-diabetic nutraceutical property of an AC hydroethanolic extract that contains mainly sugars and traces of polyphenols and amino acids (as shown by nalysis with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)), in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and healthy Wistar (W) rats. A single oral administration of AC extract (2000 mg/kg body weight) improved glucose tolerance during Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests (OGTT) in both GK rats and in W rats. Long-term treatment (21 days) with AC (1000 mg/kg b.w.) improved the glucose tolerance evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose levels during the OGTT, in both GK and W rats. The HbA1c levels were reduced in both GK (19.83%) and W rats (10.7%). This effect was secondary to an increase in serum insulin levels in both GK and W rats and confirmed in pancreatic islets, isolated from treated animals, where the chronic AC exposure increased the insulin production 4.1-fold in GK and 3.7-fold in W rat islets. Furthermore, the effect of AC on in vitro glucose-dependent insulin secretion (16.7 mM glucose) was concentration-dependent up to 50 mg/mL, with 8.5-fold increase in GK and 5.7-fold in W rat islets, and the insulin secretion in perifused GK and W rat islets increased 31 and nine times, respectively. The mechanism of action of AC on insulin secretion was shown to involve calcium, PKA and PKC activation, and G-protein coupled-exocytosis since the AC effect was reduced 38% by nifedipine (L-type channel inhibitor), 77% by H89 (PKA inhibitor), 79% by Calphostine-C (PKC inhibitor) and 20% by pertussis toxin (G-protein suppressor). View Full-Text
Keywords: Amaranthus caudatus; nutraceutical; natural product; diabetes mellitus type 2 diabetes; insulin secretion; Goto-Kakizaki rats Amaranthus caudatus; nutraceutical; natural product; diabetes mellitus type 2 diabetes; insulin secretion; Goto-Kakizaki rats

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Zambrana, S.; Lundqvist, L.C.E.; Veliz, V.; Catrina, S.-B.; Gonzales, E.; Östenson, C.-G. Amaranthus caudatus Stimulates Insulin Secretion in Goto-Kakizaki Rats, a Model of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. Nutrients 2018, 10, 94.

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