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Remote Sens. 2017, 9(2), 141; doi:10.3390/rs9020141

The Estimation of the North American Great Lakes Turbulent Fluxes Using Satellite Remote Sensing and MERRA Reanalysis Data

1
Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency (GISTDA) 120, The Government Complex Building B, Chaeng Wattana Road, Lak Si Bangkok 10210, Thailand
2
Department of Geography, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0260, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Zhaoliang Li and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 17 October 2016 / Revised: 14 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
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Abstract

This study provides the first technique to investigate the turbulent fluxes over the Great Lakes from July 2001 to December 2014 using a combination of data from satellite remote sensing, reanalysis data sets, and direct measurements. Turbulent fluxes including latent heat flux (QE) and sensible heat flux (QH) were estimated using the bulk aerodynamic approach, then compared with the direct eddy covariance measurements from the rooftop of three lighthouses—Stannard Rock Lighthouse (SR) in Lake Superior, White Shoal Lighthouse (WS) in Lake Michigan, and Spectacle Reef Lighthouse (SP) in Lake Huron. The relationship between modeled and measured QE and QH were in a good statistical agreement, for QE, R2 varied from 0.41 (WS), 0.74 (SR), and 0.87 (SP) with RMSE of 5.68, 6.93, and 4.67 W·m−2, respectively, while QH, R2 ranged from 0.002 (WS), 0.8030 (SP) and 0.94 (SR) with RMSE of 6.97, 4.39 and 4.90 W·m−2 respectively. Both monthly mean QE and QH were highest in January for all lakes except Lake Ontario, which was highest in early December. The turbulent fluxes then sharply drop in March and are negligible during June and July. The evaporation processes continue again in August. View Full-Text
Keywords: evaporation; the Great Lakes; remote sensing; reanalysis evaporation; the Great Lakes; remote sensing; reanalysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Moukomla, S.; Blanken, P.D. The Estimation of the North American Great Lakes Turbulent Fluxes Using Satellite Remote Sensing and MERRA Reanalysis Data. Remote Sens. 2017, 9, 141.

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