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Remote Sens. 2016, 8(7), 559; doi:10.3390/rs8070559

Three-Dimensional Surface Displacement Field Associated with the 25 April 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, Earthquake: Solution from Integrated InSAR and GPS Measurements with an Extended SISTEM Approach

1
and
1,2,*
1
School of Geodesy and Geomatics, Wuhan University, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China
2
Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment and Geodesy, Ministry of Education, 129 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430079, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Cheinway Hwang, Wenbin Shen, C.K. Shum, Stéphane Calmant, Norman Kerle and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 2 June 2016 / Accepted: 28 June 2016 / Published: 30 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing in Tibet and Siberia)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [10868 KB, uploaded 30 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Three-dimensional surface displacement field associated with the 25 April 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake is derived from an integration of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements, with an extended SISTEM (Simultaneous and Integrated Strain Tensor Estimation From Geodetic and Satellite Deformation Measurements) approach (ESISTEM) proposed in this study. In ESISTEM approach, both surrounding InSAR and GPS measurements can be used as constraints in deriving surface displacements; while only surrounding GPS measurements are used in SISTEM approach. Besides the constraints from surrounding GPS measurements, the ESISTEM approach makes surrounding InSAR measurements available for constraining the derived deformations based on surface elastic theory for the first time. From the north to the south, derived surface displacement field shows prevailing southward horizontal deformations, and gradually varied vertical deformations ranging from −0.95 to 1.40 m within 120 km to the north of Kathmandu. This reveals that ruptures of Main Himalayan thrust (MHT) system were confined in subsurface and did not propagate to the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) fault, in accordance with field investigation as well as geodetic and seismic studies. Relation between vertical deformations and earthquake-induced landslides is briefly discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: InSAR; GPS; 3D surface displacement field; ESISTEM; 2015 Gorkha earthquake InSAR; GPS; 3D surface displacement field; ESISTEM; 2015 Gorkha earthquake
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Luo, H.; Chen, T. Three-Dimensional Surface Displacement Field Associated with the 25 April 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, Earthquake: Solution from Integrated InSAR and GPS Measurements with an Extended SISTEM Approach. Remote Sens. 2016, 8, 559.

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