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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(5), 5300-5328; doi:10.3390/rs70505300

Combination of Conventional and Advanced DInSAR to Monitor Very Fast Mining Subsidence with TerraSAR-X Data: Bytom City (Poland)

1
Polish Geological Institute—National Research Institute, Rakowiecka no. 4, 00-975 Warsaw, Poland
2
Earth Observation and Geohazards Expert Group (EOEG), EuroGeoSurveys, the Geological Surveys of Europe, 36-38, Rue Joseph II, 1000 Brussels, Belgium
3
Geohazards InSAR Laboratory and Modeling group (InSARlab), Geoscience Research Department, Geological Survey of Spain (IGME), Alenza 1, E-28003 Madrid, Spain
4
Radar Interferometry Terrain Motion Research Unit (UNIRAD, IGME-UA), University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, E-03080 Alicante, Spain
5
Tele-Rilevamento Europa—T.R.E. s.r.l., Ripa di Porta Ticinese, 79, I-20143 Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Richard Gloaguen and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 12 September 2014 / Revised: 17 April 2015 / Accepted: 22 April 2015 / Published: 27 April 2015
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Abstract

In this work, the analysis of TerraSAR-X satellite images combining both conventional and advanced Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) approaches has proven to be effective to detect and monitor fast evolving mining subsidence on urban areas in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland). This region accounts for almost three million inhabitants where mining subsidence has produced severe damage to urban structures and infrastructures in recent years. Conventional DInSAR approach was used to generate 28 differential interferograms between 5 July 2011 and 21 June 2012 identifying 31 subsidence troughs that account up to 245 mm of displacement in 54 days (equivalent to 1660 mm/year). SqueeSARTM processing yielded a very dense measurement point distribution, failing to detect faster displacements than 330 mm/year, which occur within the subsidence troughs detected with conventional DInSAR. Despite this limitation, this approach was useful to delimit stable areas where mining activities are not conducted and areas affected by residual subsidence surrounding the detected subsidence troughs. These residual subsidence mining areas are located approximately 1 km away from the 31 detected subsidence troughs and account for a subsidence rate greater than 17 mm/year on average. The validation of this methodology has been performed over Bytom City were underground mining activity produced severe damages in August 2011. Conventional DInSAR permitted to successfully map subsidence troughs between July and August 2011 that coincide spatially and temporally with the evolution of underground mining excavations, as well as with the demolition of 28 buildings of Karb district. Additionally, SqueeSARTM displacement estimates were useful to delimit an area of 8.3 km2 of Bytom city that is affected by a residual mining subsidence greater than 5 mm/year and could potentially suffer damages in the midterm. The comparison between geodetic data and SqueeSARTM for the common monitoring period yields and average absolute difference of 7 mm/year, which represents 14% of the average displacement rate measured by the geodetic benchmarks. These results demonstrate that the combined exploitation of high-resolution satellite SAR data through both conventional and advanced DInSAR techniques could be crucial to monitor fast evolving mining subsidence, which may severely impact highly populated mining areas such as the Upper Silesia Coal Basin (USCB). View Full-Text
Keywords: InSAR; mining-induced subsidence; PSInSAR; Upper Silesia Coal Basin InSAR; mining-induced subsidence; PSInSAR; Upper Silesia Coal Basin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Przyłucka, M.; Herrera, G.; Graniczny, M.; Colombo, D.; Béjar-Pizarro, M. Combination of Conventional and Advanced DInSAR to Monitor Very Fast Mining Subsidence with TerraSAR-X Data: Bytom City (Poland). Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 5300-5328.

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