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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 488-511;

Soil Salinity Retrieval from Advanced Multi-Spectral Sensor with Partial Least Square Regression

Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 73 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049, China
Jiangsu Provincial Bureau of Surveying and Mapping, No. 75 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210013, China
Surveying and Mapping Department, School of Transportation, Southeast University, No. 2 Sipailou, Nanjing 210096, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Arnon Karnieli and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 21 May 2014 / Accepted: 23 December 2014 / Published: 6 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Land Degradation in Drylands)
Full-Text   |   PDF [20665 KB, uploaded 6 January 2015]   |  


Improper use of land resources may result in severe soil salinization. Timely monitoring and early warning of soil salinity is in urgent need for sustainable development. This paper addresses the possibility and potential of Advanced Land Imager (ALI) for mapping soil salinity. In situ field spectra and soil salinity data were collected in the Yellow River Delta, China. Statistical analysis demonstrated the importance of ALI blue and near infrared (NIR) bands for soil salinity. A partial least square regression (PLSR) model was established between soil salinity and ALI-convolved field spectra. The model estimated soil salinity with a R2 (coefficient of determination), RPD (ratio of prediction to deviation), bias, standard deviation (SD) and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.749, 3.584, 0.036 g∙kg−1, 0.778 g∙kg−1 and 0.779 g∙kg−1. The model was then applied to atmospherically corrected ALI data. Soil salinity was underestimated for moderately (soil salinity within 2–4 g∙kg−1) and highly saline (soil salinity >4 g∙kg−1) soils. The underestimates increased with the degree of soil salinization, with a maximum value of ~4 g∙kg−1. The major contribution for the underestimation (>80%) may result from data inaccuracy other than model ineffectiveness. Uncertainty analysis confirmed that improper atmospheric correction contributed to a very conservative uncertainty of 1.3 g∙kg−1. Field sampling within remote sensing pixels was probably the major source responsible for the underestimation. Our study demonstrates the effectiveness of PLSR model in retrieving soil salinity from new-generation multi-spectral sensors. This is very valuable for achieving worldwide soil salinity mapping with low cost and considerable accuracy. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil salinization; advanced land imager; partial least square regression; Yellow River Delta soil salinization; advanced land imager; partial least square regression; Yellow River Delta

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Fan, X.; Liu, Y.; Tao, J.; Weng, Y. Soil Salinity Retrieval from Advanced Multi-Spectral Sensor with Partial Least Square Regression. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 488-511.

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