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Remote Sens. 2015, 7(1), 467-487; doi:10.3390/rs70100467

Offshore Wind Resources Assessment from Multiple Satellite Data and WRF Modeling over South China Sea

1
Public Meteorological Service Center of China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Beijing 10081, China
2
National Climate Center, Beijing 10081, China
3
Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Frederiksborgvej 339, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
4
Hainan Climate Center, Haikou 570203, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Yuei-An Liou, Chyi-Tyi Lee, Yaoming Ma, Takashi Oguchi, Indrajeet Chaubey, Richard Müller and Prasad S. Thenkabail
Received: 23 August 2014 / Accepted: 16 December 2014 / Published: 6 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earth Observations for the Sustainable Development)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [17148 KB, uploaded 6 January 2015]   |  

Abstract

Using accurate inputs of wind speed is crucial in wind resource assessment, as predicted power is proportional to the wind speed cubed. This study outlines a methodology for combining multiple ocean satellite winds and winds from WRF simulations in order to acquire the accurate reconstructed offshore winds which can be used for offshore wind resource assessment. First, wind speeds retrieved from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Scatterometer ASCAT images were validated against in situ measurements from seven coastal meteorological stations in South China Sea (SCS). The wind roses from the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS) and ASCAT agree well with these observations from the corresponding in situ measurements. The statistical results comparing in situ wind speed and SAR-based (ASCAT-based) wind speed for the whole co-located samples show a standard deviation (SD) of 2.09 m/s (1.83 m/s) and correlation coefficient of R 0.75 (0.80). When the offshore winds (i.e., winds directed from land to sea) are excluded, the comparison results for wind speeds show an improvement of SD and R, indicating that the satellite data are more credible over the open ocean. Meanwhile, the validation of satellite winds against the same co-located mast observations shows a satisfactory level of accuracy which was similar for SAR and ASCAT winds. These satellite winds are then assimilated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model by WRF Data Assimilation (WRFDA) system. Finally, the wind resource statistics at 100 m height based on the reconstructed winds have been achieved over the study area, which fully combines the offshore wind information from multiple satellite data and numerical model. The findings presented here may be useful in future wind resource assessment based on satellite data. View Full-Text
Keywords: satellite retrieval winds; data assimilation; offshore wind resources assessment satellite retrieval winds; data assimilation; offshore wind resources assessment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, R.; Zhu, R.; Badger, M.; Hasager, C.B.; Xing, X.; Jiang, Y. Offshore Wind Resources Assessment from Multiple Satellite Data and WRF Modeling over South China Sea. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 467-487.

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