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Remote Sens. 2013, 5(12), 6361-6381; doi:10.3390/rs5126361
Article

Airborne Thermal Data Identifies Groundwater Discharge at the North-Western Coast of the Dead Sea

1,* , 2
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Received: 20 September 2013; in revised form: 8 November 2013 / Accepted: 8 November 2013 / Published: 26 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrological Remote Sensing)
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Abstract: A qualitative and quantitative monitoring of groundwater discharge was conducted based on an airborne thermal campaign undertaken along the north-western coast of the Dead Sea in January 2011 to contribute to the relatively scarce information on groundwater discharge to date in the region. The application of airborne thermal data exploits thermal contrasts that exist between discharging groundwater and background sea surface temperatures of the Dead Sea. Using these contrasts, 72 discharge sites were identified from which only 42 were known from previous in situ measurements undertaken at terrestrial springs by the Israel Hydrological Service. Six of these sites represent submarine springs and at a further 24 locations groundwater appears to seep through the sediment. Although the abundance of groundwater seepage sites suggests a significant, but so far unknown groundwater source, the main contribution appears to originate from terrestrial springs. In an attempt to provide a quantitative approach for terrestrial springs, a linear bootstrap regression model between in situ spring discharge and respective thermal discharge plumes (r2 = 0.87 p < 0.001) is developed and presented here. While the results appear promising and could potentially be applied to derive discharge values at unmonitored sites, several influence factors need to be clarified before a robust and reliable model to efficiently derive a complete quantitative picture of groundwater discharge can be proposed.
Keywords: thermal discharge plume; groundwater discharge; submarine springs; seeping springs; terrestrial springs; airborne thermal remote sensing thermal discharge plume; groundwater discharge; submarine springs; seeping springs; terrestrial springs; airborne thermal remote sensing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mallast, U.; Schwonke, F.; Gloaguen, R.; Geyer, S.; Sauter, M.; Siebert, C. Airborne Thermal Data Identifies Groundwater Discharge at the North-Western Coast of the Dead Sea. Remote Sens. 2013, 5, 6361-6381.

AMA Style

Mallast U, Schwonke F, Gloaguen R, Geyer S, Sauter M, Siebert C. Airborne Thermal Data Identifies Groundwater Discharge at the North-Western Coast of the Dead Sea. Remote Sensing. 2013; 5(12):6361-6381.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mallast, Ulf; Schwonke, Friedhelm; Gloaguen, Richard; Geyer, Stefan; Sauter, Martin; Siebert, Christian. 2013. "Airborne Thermal Data Identifies Groundwater Discharge at the North-Western Coast of the Dead Sea." Remote Sens. 5, no. 12: 6361-6381.


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