Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
An Operational Scheme for Deriving Standardised Surface Reflectance from Landsat TM/ETM+ and SPOT HRG Imagery for Eastern Australia
Joint Remote Sensing Research Program, School of Geography, Planning and Environmental Management, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
Department of Science, Information Technology, Innovation and the Arts, 41 Boggo Rd, Dutton Park, QLD 4102, Australia
Office of Environment and Heritage, Sydney South, NSW 1232, Australia
Landcare Research, Lincoln 7640, New Zealand
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 November 2012; in revised form: 23 December 2012 / Accepted: 25 December 2012 / Published: 4 January 2013
Abstract: Operational monitoring of vegetation and land surface change over large areas can make good use of satellite sensors that measure radiance reflected from the Earth’s surface. Monitoring programs use multiple images for complete spatial coverage over time. Accurate retrievals of vegetation cover and vegetation change estimates can be hampered by variation, in both space and time, in the measured radiance, caused by atmospheric conditions, topography, sensor location, and sun elevation. In order to obtain estimates of cover that are comparable between images, and to retrieve accurate estimates of change, these sources of variation must be removed. In this paper we present a preprocessing scheme for minimising atmospheric, topographic and bi-directional reflectance effects on Landsat-5 TM, Landsat-7 ETM+ and SPOT-5 HRG imagery. The approach involves atmospheric correction to compute surface-leaving radiance, and bi-directional reflectance modelling to remove the effects of topography and angular variation in reflectance. The bi-directional reflectance model has been parameterised for eastern Australia, but the general approach is more widely applicable. The result is surface reflectance standardised to a fixed viewing and illumination geometry. The method can be applied to the entire record for these instruments, without intervention, which is of increasing importance with the increased availability of long term image archives. Validation shows that the corrections improve the estimation of reflectance at any given angular configuration, thus allowing the removal from the reflectance signal of much variation due to factors independent of the land surface. The method has been used to process over 45,000 Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-7 ETM+ scenes and 2,500 SPOT-5 scenes, over eastern Australia, and is now in use in operational monitoring programs.
Keywords: Landsat TM; SPOT HRG; surface reflectance; radiometric correction; atmospheric; BRDF; topographic
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Flood, N.; Danaher, T.; Gill, T.; Gillingham, S. An Operational Scheme for Deriving Standardised Surface Reflectance from Landsat TM/ETM+ and SPOT HRG Imagery for Eastern Australia. Remote Sens. 2013, 5, 83-109.
Flood N, Danaher T, Gill T, Gillingham S. An Operational Scheme for Deriving Standardised Surface Reflectance from Landsat TM/ETM+ and SPOT HRG Imagery for Eastern Australia. Remote Sensing. 2013; 5(1):83-109.
Flood, Neil; Danaher, Tim; Gill, Tony; Gillingham, Sam. 2013. "An Operational Scheme for Deriving Standardised Surface Reflectance from Landsat TM/ETM+ and SPOT HRG Imagery for Eastern Australia." Remote Sens. 5, no. 1: 83-109.