- freely available
Sustainability 2017, 9(9), 1526; doi:10.3390/su9091526
2. Materials and Methods
- Remote sensing methodology as it is effective tool for monitoring dust storms and aerosol layers trajectories. This is valid especially for regional scales. Brightness measurements from NOAA/AVHRR- LAC (Local Area Coverage) and GAC (Global Area Coverage) archives, Terra/Aqua MODIS (The moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) and TOMS (The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer) aerosol images of dust phenomena are good operational middle resolution indicator over the cloudless Arabia Gulf region. Low resolution meteorological images were used from METEOSAT are supporting the real time synoptic view of major dust storms over the Region. Old SeaWifs image archive (LAC and GAC) is additional support for delineation of dust trajectories in early 2000th. Analysis of true-color composition of three bands MODIS 1(645 nm), 4(555 nm) and 3(469 nm) gave excellent opportunity for relatively high resolution of intensive dust jets over the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. The collected images from these satellite data related to SDS days (using visibility and wind direction) were used in tracing major trajectories. SDS images were also collected from these satellites NASA web sites such as (http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/event), (http://visibleearth.nasa.gov) and http://modis.gsfc.nasa.gov).
- Dust fallout was monitored using a modified dust trap with 20 cm aperture and fixed at 240 cm above ground level and filled with marbles following the design by Al-Dousari and Al-Awadhi  (Figure 1) modified from Reheis  and Al-Awadhi  dust trap. There were 40 dust traps installed within coastal and terrestrial areas (20 traps for each) in Kuwait at the northern part of Arabian Gulf (Figure 2). The samples were monthly collected between 1 January 2011 and 31 October 2011 from all dust traps.
- Deposited dust was also collected from smooth surfaces on building at 5 m or more above ground level within major paths of SDS in the Arabian Gulf region. This sampling method were also used to cover surrounding global and regional areas to identify the dust properties in the Arabian Gulf in relation to other samples that include south Ahwar-Iraq, Manama-Bahrain, Riyadh and Walamen-south Arabia, Dubai and Ain-UAE and Cairo-Egypt.
- All collected samples (from both above methods) were analyzed to detect the physical and mineralogical properties of dust using the following techniques:
- Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area were used to analyze all collected samples in the second method, in addition to terrestrial and coastal areas samples from Kuwait. The BET-surface area is stated as values for a particular weight of loose particles concerning meter square per gram (m2 g−1) measured via isotherm plot diagrams of volume against pressure and using the BET equation was devised .
- Dust fallout particle size percentages for 20 samples collected during 10 months from desert and coastal areas within Kuwait (January to October) were determined using Shumadzu, SA-CP3 Centrifugal Particle Analyzer.
- The whole components of the dust samples collected from the Arabian Gulf region in addition to March, June, September and December samples from desert and coastal dust traps in Kuwait were softly milled and analyzed using Philips PW-1830 X-ray diffraction (XRD) to semi-quantitative analysis.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Dust Regional Trajectories
- Extensive (SDS averaged width more than 300 km),
- Contains 6 subtypes (Agglomerated–Dense, Agglomerated–Dispersed, Wavy, Hook–Single head, Hook–Multiple heads, and Spiral),
- Intermediate (width 300–100 km),
- Contains 3 subtypes (Straight, Curved and Hook), and
- Small (width less than 100 km) SDS.
- Contains 3 subtypes (Needle like, Arrow shape-straight, and Arrow shape-curved).
- The Mesopotamian Flood Plain (MEP),
- The western desert of Iraq (WD),
- Ahwar marshes (HR),
- Nafud Desert (NFD)
- Ahwaz-Iran (HZ)
- Empty Quarter Desert (EQ) and
- Bandar Lenga (BLG), Iran.
- Hurmuz (HRZ)
3.2. Particle Size Characteristics
3.3. Mineralogical Analysis
3.4. BET Surface Area
- There are 8 major SDS trajectories were identified in the Arabian Gulf using satellite images and weather data.
- The dust storms trajectories were classified in accordance to shape and size into three major types namely, Extensive, Intermediate and Small dust storms with 12 subtypes in the region.
- The dust particles originated dominantly from SDS trajectories in WD, EQ and NFD are coarser, lower values of BET surface area, higher in quartz and low carbonate contents compared to dust from MFP, HZ, HR and BS.
- The very fine (V.F.S.) and fine (F.S.) sand grains (diameter above 0.063 mm) originate commonly from local sources representing around 58% of the average deposited dust ratios in desert areas, while it represents only 11% within coastal area of the Arabian Gulf.
- The deposited dust particles are fining towards the Arabian Gulf and getting coarser towards the desert areas.
- Quartz and carbonates are the main constituents of dust in the Arabian Gulf. Feldspars are found in considerable quantities, but it was observed that quartz percentages increases and carbonates decrease towards the desert area dust.
- Gypsum, anhydrite, bassanite and heavy minerals represent other minerals with 3% as minor components of dust.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Ocean/Sea||Total Area (km2)||Annual Dust (t km−2)||Location-Political Region (Reference)||Annual Dust to Total Sea Area (Million Tons) *||Annual Dust in Water Volume (t km−3) **|
|Arabian Gulf||226,000||373||Kuwait (present study)||89||10,330|
|76||Um Qasr-Iraq |
|194||Khur Zubir |
|Arabian Sea||3,862,000||89||Oman ||344||33|
|Red Sea||938,000||57||Negev Desert ||53||1.33|
|Mediterranean Sea||2,500,000||155||Tripolli-Libya ||185||49|
|Atlantic Ocean||106,400,000||114||Agadir-Morocco ||13,324||38|
|145||Sidi Afni-Morocco |
|175||Tan Tan-Morocco |
|111||Smara-Morocco  Itguity-|
|Location||Sand||V. C. Silt *||C. Silt *||M. Silt *||F. Silt *||V. F. Silt *||Clay|
|Desert dust around the Arabian Gulf|
|Coastal dust around the Arabian Gulf|
|Desert dust-Arabian Gulf|
|Coastal dust-Arabian Gulf|
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