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Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1389; doi:10.3390/su9081389

Impact of Volcanic Ash on Road and Airfield Surface Skid Resistance

1
Department of Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8041, New Zealand
2
GNS Science, 1 Fairway Drive, Avalon 5010, P.O. Box 30-368, Lower Hutt 5040, New Zealand
3
School of Environment, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 29 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 6 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dust Events in the Environment)
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Abstract

Volcanic ash deposited on paved surfaces during volcanic eruptions often compromises skid resistance, which is a major component of safety. We adopt the British pendulum test method in laboratory conditions to investigate the skid resistance of road asphalt and airfield concrete surfaces covered by volcanic ash sourced from various locations in New Zealand. Controlled variations in ash characteristics include type, depth, wetness, particle size and soluble components. We use Stone Mastic Asphalt (SMA) for most road surface experiments but also test porous asphalt, line-painted road surfaces, and a roller screed concrete mix used for airfields. Due to their importance for skid resistance, SMA surface macrotexture and microtexture are analysed with semi-quantitative image analysis, microscopy and a standardised sand patch volumetric test, which enables determination of the relative effectiveness of different cleaning techniques. We find that SMA surfaces covered by thin deposits (~1 mm) of ash result in skid resistance values slightly lower than those observed on wet uncontaminated surfaces. At these depths, a higher relative soluble content for low-crystalline ash and a coarser particle size results in lower skid resistance. Skid resistance results for relatively thicker deposits (3–5 mm) of non-vesiculated basaltic ash are similar to those for thin deposits. There are similarities between road asphalt and airfield concrete, although there is little difference in skid resistance between bare airfield surfaces and airfield surfaces covered by 1 mm of ash. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations for maintaining road safety and effective cleaning techniques in volcanic ash environments. View Full-Text
Keywords: volcanic ash; asphalt; concrete; runway; highway; traction; British Pendulum Tester; safety volcanic ash; asphalt; concrete; runway; highway; traction; British Pendulum Tester; safety
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Blake, D.M.; Wilson, T.M.; Cole, J.W.; Deligne, N.I.; Lindsay, J.M. Impact of Volcanic Ash on Road and Airfield Surface Skid Resistance. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1389.

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