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Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1392; doi:10.3390/su9081392

Enhancing the Durability of Calcareous Stone Monuments of Ancient Egypt Using CaCO3 Nanoparticles

National Nanotechnology Research Center, King Abdulalziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442, Saudi Arabia
Department of conservation, Faculty of Archaeology, Cairo University, P.O. Box 12613, Giza 12221, Egypt
Faculty of Pharmacy, Tripoli University and National Nanotechnology Project, Biotechnology Research Center, LARST, P.O. Box 13100, Tripoli, Libya
Ministry of Antiquities, The grand Egyptian Museum, Giza 12556, Egypt
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 June 2017 / Revised: 2 August 2017 / Accepted: 3 August 2017 / Published: 10 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Chemistry)
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The unwanted changes in valuable historic calcareous stone monuments due to exposure to many physical and chemical effects may lead to its deterioration. The growing interest in the field of conservation of stone monuments encourages the development of consolidation and water-repellent materials. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of CaCO3 nanoparticles as a consolidation and protection material for calcareous stone monuments, when those nanoparticles used are dispersed in acrylic copolymer; polyethylmethacrylate (EMA)/methylacrylate (MA) (70/30), respectively. Samples were subjected to artificial aging by relative humidity/temperature to show the optimum conditions of durability and the effectiveness of the nano-mixture in improving the physical and mechanical properties of the stone material. The synthesis process of CaCO3 nanoparticles/polymer nanocomposite has been prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization system. The prepared nanocomposites with 0.15 g CaCO3 nanoparticles showed obvious transparency features and represent nanocomposites coating technology with hydrophobic, consolidating and good protection properties. Some tests were performed in order to estimate the superficial consolidating and protective effect of the treatment. The obtained nanocomposites have been characterized by TEM, while the surface morphology before and after treatment and homogeneous distribution of used consolidation materials on stone surface were examined by SEM. Improvement of stone mechanical properties was evaluated by compressive strength tests. Change in water-interaction properties was evaluated by water absorption capillarity measurements, and colorimetric measurements were used to evaluate the optical appearance. Taken together, the results indicate that CaCO3/polymer nanocomposite is a completely compatible, efficient material for the consolidation of artistic and architectural limestone monuments capable of enhancing the durability of limestone toward artificial aging and improving the stone mechanical properties compared to the samples treated with pure acrylic copolymer without Calcium carbonate nanoparticles. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium carbonate nanoparticles; consolidation; nanocomposites; calcareous stone; TEM; Colorimetric measurements; compressive strength calcium carbonate nanoparticles; consolidation; nanocomposites; calcareous stone; TEM; Colorimetric measurements; compressive strength

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Aldoasri, M.A.; Darwish, S.S.; Adam, M.A.; Elmarzugi, N.A.; Ahmed, S.M. Enhancing the Durability of Calcareous Stone Monuments of Ancient Egypt Using CaCO3 Nanoparticles. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1392.

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