Next Article in Journal
Towards the Conceptual Changes in Architectural Education: Adjusting to Climate Change
Next Article in Special Issue
Sustainability in the Food-Water-Ecosystem Nexus: The Role of Land Use and Land Cover Change for Water Resources and Ecosystems in the Kilombero Wetland, Tanzania
Previous Article in Journal
The Sustainable Development Goals: An Experience on Higher Education
Previous Article in Special Issue
Scenario-Based Simulation on Dynamics of Land-Use-Land-Cover Change in Punjab Province, Pakistan
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2017, 9(8), 1354; doi:10.3390/su9081354

Impact of Deforestation on Agro-Environmental Variables in Cropland, North Korea

1
Department of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02481, Korea
2
Ecosystem Services and Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2017 / Revised: 26 July 2017 / Accepted: 28 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainability Assessment of Land Use and Land Cover)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [8057 KB, uploaded 2 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

Deforestation in North Korea is becoming the epitome of the environmental change occurring in the Korean Peninsula. This study estimates the agro-environmental variables of North Korea’s croplands and analyzes the impact of deforestation using the GEPIC (GIS-based EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate)) model and time-series land cover maps. To identify the changes in agricultural quality under deforestation, wind erosion, water erosion, organic carbon loss, and runoff were selected as the agro-environmental variables having an impact on cropland stability and productivity. Land cover maps spanning the past three decades showed that 75% of the forests were converted to croplands and that 69% of all converted croplands were originally forests, confirming the significant correlation between deforestation and cropland expansion in North Korea. Despite limitations in the verification data, we conducted qualitative and quantitative validation of the estimated variables and confirmed that our results were reasonable. Over the past 30 years, agro-environmental variables showed no clear time-series changes resulting from climate change, but changes due to spatial differences were seen. Negative changes in organic carbon loss, water erosion, and runoff were observed, regardless of the crop type. On newly-converted agricultural lands, runoff is 1.5 times higher and water-driven erosion and soil organic loss are more than twice as high compared to older croplands. The results showed that the agro-environment affected by deforestation had an impact on cropland stability and productivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: deforestation; agro-environmental variables in cropland; cropland expansion; GEPIC deforestation; agro-environmental variables in cropland; cropland expansion; GEPIC
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lim, C.-H.; Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Jeon, S.W.; Lee, W.-K. Impact of Deforestation on Agro-Environmental Variables in Cropland, North Korea. Sustainability 2017, 9, 1354.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top