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Sustainability 2017, 9(11), 2039; doi:10.3390/su9112039

Cooling Energy Implications of Occupant Factor in Buildings under Climate Change

Department of Architectural Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Gyeonggi-do 17104, Korea
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Received: 24 October 2017 / Revised: 5 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Energy Development under Climate Change)
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Abstract

Occupant factor is a critical element in the overall energy consumption of buildings. This study aims to reveal how occupant factors influence the energy consumption of example buildings in Seoul, Tokyo, and Hong Kong under climate change projections, and to prioritize factors with energy saving potential for buildings in consideration of future climate change. The study finds that the cooling degree-hours base of 23.3 °C in the three cities sharply increases with future climate change by analyzing future hourly weather data produced herein. Simulations are made with EnergyPlus Runtime Language (Erl) for modeling occupant behavior. The simulation results reveal that a dynamic thermostat control based on an adaptive comfort model is an effective method to reduce cooling energy consumption under future climate change, reducing cooling energy consumption by up to 18% in some instances. In particular, we reveal that a combined application of the adaptive comfort control, nighttime ventilation, and the use of occupancy-based lighting and equipment result in reducing cooling energy consumption by 28%. The outcomes of this study are potentially useful in providing cost-effective solutions to adapt buildings for future climate change with simple modifications to occupant behavior. Also, the roles of renewable energy are briefly discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: occupant factor; adaptive comfort; climate change; nighttime ventilation; future weather data; energy savings occupant factor; adaptive comfort; climate change; nighttime ventilation; future weather data; energy savings
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lim, J.H.; Yun, G.Y. Cooling Energy Implications of Occupant Factor in Buildings under Climate Change. Sustainability 2017, 9, 2039.

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