Next Article in Journal
Natural Ventilation Building Design Approach in Mediterranean Regions—A Case Study at the Valencian Coastal Regional Scale (Spain)
Next Article in Special Issue
Sustainability, TQM and Value Co-Creation Processes: The Role of Critical Success Factors
Previous Article in Journal
Perception of Cabin Air Quality among Drivers and Passengers
Previous Article in Special Issue
Environmental Management and Sustainable Labels in the Ski Industry: A Critical Review
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Sustainability 2016, 8(9), 856; doi:10.3390/su8090856

Biogenic Amines as Quality Marker in Organic and Fair-Trade Cocoa-Based Products

Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alessandro Ruggieri, Samuel Petros Sebhatu and Zenon Foltynowicz
Received: 9 June 2016 / Revised: 14 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 29 August 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1015 KB, uploaded 29 August 2016]   |  


In this study, the quantitative determination of eight biogenic amines (cadaverine, serotonin, histamine, spermidine, spermine, tyramine, putrescine and β-phenylethylamine) by an liquid chromatography method with evaporative light scattering detection was performed. The analysis of several samples of conventional, organic and fair trade cocoa-derivatives showed that organic and fair trade samples always contain much lower amine concentrations in comparison with their conventional counterparts, supporting the idea that biogenic amines can be regarded as cocoa quality markers. Irrespective of the kind of sample, results also showed that the most abundant amines were histamine, tyramine, spermidine, putrescine and spermine while β-phenylethylamine, cadaverine and serotonine have been found more rarely, all the amines never reaching dangerous amounts for consumer health. With the aim to confirm the experimental results, clustering analysis was performed on samples and instrumental results using principal component analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: biogenic amines; cocoa-based products; organic products; fair trade; food safety; food quality biogenic amines; cocoa-based products; organic products; fair trade; food safety; food quality

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Restuccia, D.; Spizzirri, U.G.; Luca, M.D.; Parisi, O.I.; Picci, N. Biogenic Amines as Quality Marker in Organic and Fair-Trade Cocoa-Based Products. Sustainability 2016, 8, 856.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sustainability EISSN 2071-1050 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top