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Sustainability 2016, 8(9), 856; doi:10.3390/su8090856

Biogenic Amines as Quality Marker in Organic and Fair-Trade Cocoa-Based Products

Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Via Pietro Bucci, 87036 Rende (CS), Italy
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Academic Editors: Alessandro Ruggieri, Samuel Petros Sebhatu and Zenon Foltynowicz
Received: 9 June 2016 / Revised: 14 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 29 August 2016
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Abstract

In this study, the quantitative determination of eight biogenic amines (cadaverine, serotonin, histamine, spermidine, spermine, tyramine, putrescine and β-phenylethylamine) by an liquid chromatography method with evaporative light scattering detection was performed. The analysis of several samples of conventional, organic and fair trade cocoa-derivatives showed that organic and fair trade samples always contain much lower amine concentrations in comparison with their conventional counterparts, supporting the idea that biogenic amines can be regarded as cocoa quality markers. Irrespective of the kind of sample, results also showed that the most abundant amines were histamine, tyramine, spermidine, putrescine and spermine while β-phenylethylamine, cadaverine and serotonine have been found more rarely, all the amines never reaching dangerous amounts for consumer health. With the aim to confirm the experimental results, clustering analysis was performed on samples and instrumental results using principal component analysis. View Full-Text
Keywords: biogenic amines; cocoa-based products; organic products; fair trade; food safety; food quality biogenic amines; cocoa-based products; organic products; fair trade; food safety; food quality
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Restuccia, D.; Spizzirri, U.G.; Luca, M.D.; Parisi, O.I.; Picci, N. Biogenic Amines as Quality Marker in Organic and Fair-Trade Cocoa-Based Products. Sustainability 2016, 8, 856.

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