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Sustainability 2016, 8(7), 621; doi:10.3390/su8070621

Water and Carbon Footprint of Wine: Methodology Review and Application to a Case Study

1
CIRIAF, University of Perugia, Via G. Duranti, 67-06125 Perugia, Italy
2
Department of Engineering, University of Roma Tre, Via V. Volterra, 62-00146 Rome, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marc A. Rosen
Received: 12 May 2016 / Revised: 23 June 2016 / Accepted: 27 June 2016 / Published: 2 July 2016
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Abstract

Life cycle assessments (LCAs) play a strategic role in improving the environmental performance of a company and in supporting a successful marketing communication. The high impact of the food industry on natural resources, in terms of water consumption and greenhouse gases emission, has been focusing the attention of consumers and producers towards environmentally sustainable products. This work presents a comprehensive approach for the joint evaluation of carbon (CF) and water (WF) footprint of the wine industry from a cradle to grave perspective. The LCA analysis is carried out following the requirements of international standards (ISO/TS 14067 and ISO 14046). A complete review of the water footprint methodology is presented and guidelines for all the phases of the evaluation procedure are provided, including acquisition and validation of input data, allocation, application of analytic models, and interpretation of the results. The strength of this approach is the implementation of a side-by-side CF vs. WF assessment, based on the same system boundaries, functional unit, and input data, that allows a reliable comparison between the two indicators. In particular, a revised methodology is presented for the evaluation of the grey water component. The methodology was applied to a white and a red wine produced in the same company. A comparison between the two products is presented for each LCA phase along with literature results for similar wines. View Full-Text
Keywords: Water Footprint (WF); Carbon Footprint (CF); Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); Wine Industry; PACS; J0101 Water Footprint (WF); Carbon Footprint (CF); Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); Wine Industry; PACS; J0101
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rinaldi, S.; Bonamente, E.; Scrucca, F.; Merico, M.C.; Asdrubali, F.; Cotana, F. Water and Carbon Footprint of Wine: Methodology Review and Application to a Case Study. Sustainability 2016, 8, 621.

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