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Special Issue "16th CIRIAF National Congress – Sustainable Development, Environment and Human Health Protection"

A special issue of Sustainability (ISSN 2071-1050).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Francesco Asdrubali

Department of Engineering, Roma Tre University, Via Vito Volterra, 62, 00146 Roma, Italy
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Phone: 06-57336487 mobile: 329-4103927
Guest Editor
Prof. Pietro Buzzini

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Science, University of Perugia, 06125 Perugia, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +39-075-5856455

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

CIRIAF (Inter-University Research Center on Pollution and Environment “Mauro Felli)” is a research center, based out of the University of Perugia, which promotes interdisciplinary research activities in the fields of environmental pollution and its health and socio-economic effects, sustainable development, renewable and alternative energy, energy planning, sustainable mobility. One hundred professors from 14 different Italian universities are involved in the activities of the center.

The CIRIAF National Congress, at its sixteenth edition in 2016, has become, over time, an important event for researchers and experts (engineers, physicists, chemists, architects, doctors, economists) coming, not only from the academic world, but also from ministries, environmental agencies and local authorities. The annual meeting in Perugia is an opportunity to discuss the issues related to Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development.

The 16th Congress, which took place in Assisi (Perugia) from 7–9 April, 2016, was quite successful. Ninety-three papers were presented during the Congress, divided into the following sessions, in line with congress tradition and were of great interest:

  • Environmental Footprint
  • Sustainable and Green Buildings
  • Environmental and Socio-Economic Sustainability
  • Renewable and Alternative Energies and Plants
  • Green Chemistry
  • Climate change and impact on natural and agricultural ecosystems
  • Environmental Pollution and Human Health

A Special Session was also dedicated to Thermal Energy Storage, within the EU H2020 funded Project “INPATH-TES–PhD on Innovation Pathways for Thermal Energy Storage” with various international contributions.

As usual, the ceremony of the “Mauro Felli” award took place during the Congress. The award, established to honor the memory of the founder and first Director of CIRIAF, is intended for young graduates, Ph.D. students or researchers who have carried out research activities in the fields of pollution from physical agents, and effects of environmental pollution on humans or related issues.

Thanks to the agreement with the international publishing house MDPI, we are happy to introduce a Special Issue of Sustainability containing the best papers dealing with environmental and sustainable development issues, presented at the Congress.

The Special Issue will include only the best papers presented at the Congress, selected by the Scientific Committee, with the help of the various Chairmen of the Sessions.

Prof. Francesco Asdrubali
Prof. Pietro Buzzini
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sustainability is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Composite Building Materials: Thermal and Mechanical Performances of Samples Realized with Hay and Natural Resins
Sustainability 2017, 9(3), 373; doi:10.3390/su9030373
Received: 31 October 2016 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 3 March 2017
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Abstract
Recent years have seen an increasing public interest in issues related to energy saving and environmental pollution reduction in the building sector. As a result, many directives have been issued, the most important being the Directive 2010/31/EU (EPBD Recast) on the energy performance
[...] Read more.
Recent years have seen an increasing public interest in issues related to energy saving and environmental pollution reduction in the building sector. As a result, many directives have been issued, the most important being the Directive 2010/31/EU (EPBD Recast) on the energy performance of buildings, which requires that “Member States shall ensure that by 31 December 2020 all new buildings are nearly zero-energy buildings”. This goal can be obtained not only by reducing energy demand for heating and cooling, but also, for example, by improving building envelope performances. In this work, a first analysis of the thermal and structural behaviour of a biocomposite material, constituted by a natural resin (rosin) and vegetal fibres (hay), has been performed, with particular attention to the share of fibres and the granulometry in the mixture. The biocomposite has shown both good insulation properties and mechanical resistance. However, the results show that further analyses should be performed on the optimisation of the samples’ preparation process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Energy Saving in Public Transport Using Renewable Energy
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 106; doi:10.3390/su9010106
Received: 24 September 2016 / Revised: 24 December 2016 / Accepted: 9 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (5459 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydrogen produced by renewable sources represents an interesting way to reduce the energetic dependence on fossil fuels in the transportation sector. This paper shows a feasibility study for the production, storage and distribution of hydrogen in the western Sicilian context, using three different
[...] Read more.
Hydrogen produced by renewable sources represents an interesting way to reduce the energetic dependence on fossil fuels in the transportation sector. This paper shows a feasibility study for the production, storage and distribution of hydrogen in the western Sicilian context, using three different renewable sources: wind, biomass and sea wave. The objective of this study is the evaluation of the hydrogen demand, needed to replace all diesel supplied buses with electrical buses equipped with fuel cells. An economic analysis is presented with the evaluation of the avoidable greenhouse gas emissions. Four different scenarios correlate the hydrogen demand for urban transport to the renewable energy resources present in the territories and to the modern technologies available for the production of hydrogen. The study focuses on the possibility of tapping into the potential of renewable energies (wind, biomass and sea wave) for the production of hydrogen by electrolysis. The use of hydrogen would reduce significantly the emissions of particulate and greenhouse gases in the urban districts under analysis. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Managing European Cross Border Cooperation Projects on Sustainability: A Focus on MESP Project
Sustainability 2017, 9(1), 112; doi:10.3390/su9010112
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 22 December 2016 / Accepted: 3 January 2017 / Published: 13 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2010 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
International cooperation is a must to achieve the goal of sustainable development, since only through cross border actions’ complex issues like environmental degradation can be faced. Supranational initiatives and shared objectives are the only path for getting a durable and effective green strategy,
[...] Read more.
International cooperation is a must to achieve the goal of sustainable development, since only through cross border actions’ complex issues like environmental degradation can be faced. Supranational initiatives and shared objectives are the only path for getting a durable and effective green strategy, which transcends boundaries or governments and fosters a common effort for sustainability through networking. The European Neighborhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI) aims at reinforcing cooperation between the European Union (EU) and partner countries’ regions placed along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. To this extent, MESP (Managing the Environmental Sustainability of Ports for a durable development) can be considered as a typical cross border cooperation project, willing to create a sustainable environmental management of port in northern and southern shores of the Mediterranean basin. This has been achieved through the development of specific guidelines towards environmental sustainability and the collection of common tools, methodologies, good practices and innovations focused on pollution reduction that can be replicated in Mediterranean ports and further. This was possible through the creation of a strong cooperation network and long-lasting collaborations among partners and stakeholders such as harbour cities, port authorities, universities, research centres and scientific skills. Full article
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Open AccessArticle How to Deliver Open Sustainable Innovation: An Integrated Approach for a Sustainable Marketable Product
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1341; doi:10.3390/su8121341
Received: 15 August 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1469 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The adoption of open innovation and peer production, powered by 3D printing technology, is transforming traditional manufacturing methods towards a “third industrial revolution”. The purpose of this research is to provide empirical evidence for an integrated approach, based on collaborative product
[...] Read more.
The adoption of open innovation and peer production, powered by 3D printing technology, is transforming traditional manufacturing methods towards a “third industrial revolution”. The purpose of this research is to provide empirical evidence for an integrated approach, based on collaborative product development and peer production, combined with 3D printing, to deliver more sustainable, yet competitive, marketable products. In particular, this experimental study is conducted in the context of mobile forensics, an emerging market where limited expensive products exist and alternative solutions are needed. The technical viability and economic feasibility of the prototype developed in this research validate the proposed integrated approach, which could be a game-changer in the field of mobile forensics, as well as in other sectors. The sustainability improvements with this approach are a reduction of the total cost, thereby making it affordable for lower income users, and a decrease in energy consumption and pollutant emissions. The validated integrated approach offers start-up opportunities to develop and deliver more sustainable, marketable products, towards the paradigm of Open Sustainable Innovation. While the device developed and tested in this research has similar features to existing products, the methodology, implementation, and motivation are original. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Analysis and Process Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Removal Using Tuff
Sustainability 2016, 8(12), 1258; doi:10.3390/su8121258
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 26 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4082 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Removal of carbon dioxide via selective adsorption is a key process to obtain consumer-grade natural gas from biogas and, more generally, CO2 capture and sequestration from gaseous mixtures. The aim of this work is the characterization and classification of a natural alternative
[...] Read more.
Removal of carbon dioxide via selective adsorption is a key process to obtain consumer-grade natural gas from biogas and, more generally, CO2 capture and sequestration from gaseous mixtures. The aim of this work is the characterization and classification of a natural alternative to synthetic zeolites that could be used as a carbon dioxide adsorbent. Tuff particulate, easily available as a byproduct of the construction industry, was tested with different laboratory procedures to verify its suitability for CO2 removal applications. Relevant physical and adsorption properties were measured during an intensive experimental campaign. Porosity, pore size distribution, and specific surface area were obtained with mercury intrusion porosimetry. Adsorption isotherms and saturation curves were obtained using two custom experimental apparatuses. The selective adsorption was finally modeled using an original phenomenological parameterization, and a simplified simulation of the process was performed using a computational fluid dynamic approach, validated against observed data. Results show that natural zeolites represent a very promising and sustainable alternative to synthetic zeolites in pressure swing adsorption processes for CO2 removal. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Computational Fluid Dynamic Modelling of Thermal Periodic Stabilized Regime in Passive Buildings
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1172; doi:10.3390/su8111172
Received: 30 September 2016 / Revised: 27 October 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 12 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (25426 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The periodic stabilized regime is the condition where the temperature of each point of a certain environment varies following a periodic law. This phenomenon occurs in many practical applications, such as passive or ancient buildings not equipped with Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning
[...] Read more.
The periodic stabilized regime is the condition where the temperature of each point of a certain environment varies following a periodic law. This phenomenon occurs in many practical applications, such as passive or ancient buildings not equipped with Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning HVAC systems and located in latitudes where the temperature greatly varies with Earth’s daily cycles. Despite that, the study of transient phenomena is often simplified, i.e., considering negligible the thermal response of the indoor microclimate. An exact solution to enclosures whose microclimate is free to evolve under a periodic stabilized regime does not exist nowadays, also from an analytical point of view. The aim of this study is to parametrically analyze the thermal variations inside a room when a transient periodic temperature is applied on one side. The phenomenon has been numerically studied through Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and analytically validated using a function that reproduces the daily variation of the outdoor temperature. The results of this research would lay the groundwork to develop analytical correlations to solve and predict the thermal behavior of environments subject to a periodic stabilized regime. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Management Optimization of the Luminous Flux Regulation of a Lighting System in Road Tunnels. A First Approach to the Exertion of Predictive Control Systems
Sustainability 2016, 8(11), 1092; doi:10.3390/su8111092
Received: 12 July 2016 / Revised: 23 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 October 2016 / Published: 25 October 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lighting very long road tunnels implies a high consumption of electrical energy since it requires a proper illumination during the whole day. In particular, in the daytime, the illuminance levels right at the tunnel entrance threshold and exit zones must be higher than
[...] Read more.
Lighting very long road tunnels implies a high consumption of electrical energy since it requires a proper illumination during the whole day. In particular, in the daytime, the illuminance levels right at the tunnel entrance threshold and exit zones must be higher than those characterizing the inside of the tunnel; in this way, the eye of the driver is able to adapt and be safe while passing from a high natural illumination of the outside to the lighting conditions characterizing the inside of the tunnel. However this causes a high energy demand. Therefore, this case study investigates whether it is possible to minimize the energy demand through the exertion of an automatic new control system regulating the luminous fluxes of artificial sources (guaranteeing the parameters set by the regulation) with respect to the variation of the natural light characterizing the outside. The innovative control systems must be characterized by high reliability levels in order to guarantee conditions which are not dangerous to the driver if an outage occurs and minimize their maintenance costs. To carry out this type of study, the software DIALux was used to simulate a tunnel with a dimming system (with lamps characterized by a high luminous efficiency) regulated by a pre-programmed logic control system (with high Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) values). The savings obtained enabled the amortization of the solution here suggested in a time interval that makes it an advantageous choice economically speaking. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Impact of Albedo Increase to Mitigate the Urban Heat Island in Terni (Italy) Using the WRF Model
Sustainability 2016, 8(10), 999; doi:10.3390/su8100999
Received: 6 July 2016 / Revised: 28 September 2016 / Accepted: 29 September 2016 / Published: 7 October 2016
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (3655 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The impacts of the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon on energy consumption, air quality, and human health have been widely studied and described. Mitigation strategies have been developed to fight the UHI and its detrimental consequences. A potential countermeasure is the increase of
[...] Read more.
The impacts of the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon on energy consumption, air quality, and human health have been widely studied and described. Mitigation strategies have been developed to fight the UHI and its detrimental consequences. A potential countermeasure is the increase of urban albedo by using cool materials. Cool materials are highly reflective materials that can maintain lower surface temperatures and thus can present an effective solution to mitigate the UHI. Terni’s proven record of high temperatures along with related environmental and comfort issues in its urban areas have reflected the local consequences of global warming. On the other hand, it promoted integrated actions by the government and research institutes to investigate solutions to mitigate the UHI effects. In this study, the main goal is to investigate the effectiveness of albedo increase as a strategy to tackle the UHI, by using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model to simulate the urban climate of Terni (Italy). Three different scenarios through a summer heat wave in the summer of 2015 are analyzed. The Base Scenario, which simulates the actual conditions of the urban area, is the control case. In the Albedo Scenario (ALB Scenario), the albedo of the roof, walls and road of the whole urban area is increased. In the Albedo-Industrial Scenario (ALB-IND Scenario), the albedo of the roof, walls and road of the area occupied by the main industrial site of Terni, located in close proximity to the city center, is increased. The simulation results show that the UHI is decreased up to 2 °C both at daytime and at nighttime in the ALB and in ALB-IND Scenarios. Peak temperatures in the urban area can be decreased by 1 °C at daytime, and by about 2 °C at nighttime. Albedo increase in the area of interest might thus represent an opportunity to decrease the UHI effect and its consequences. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Air-Tightness Analysis in Mediterranean Buildings after Windows Retrofit
Sustainability 2016, 8(10), 991; doi:10.3390/su8100991
Received: 8 June 2016 / Revised: 7 September 2016 / Accepted: 22 September 2016 / Published: 30 September 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy saving and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in buildings are strongly affected by air leakages. Several studies reveal that the energy loss owing to leaky windows can account for up to 40% of the total building energy demand. Furthermore, at the design stage,
[...] Read more.
Energy saving and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in buildings are strongly affected by air leakages. Several studies reveal that the energy loss owing to leaky windows can account for up to 40% of the total building energy demand. Furthermore, at the design stage, the possible infiltration of outdoor air through windows is not taken into account when determining the nominal outdoor airflow rate of the ventilation system. This practice may result in an oversizing of the ventilation system and consequent energy waste. Thus, the air-tightness class of a wall assembly should be assessed for each window component considering the type of material, the presence of the seal, the type of closure, the sealing and the maintenance condition. In this paper, the authors present the experimental results of air-tightness measurements carried out using the fan pressurization method in three residential buildings located in the Mediterranean region before and after a window retrofit. Two different window retrofits were investigated: the application of rubber seals on window frames and the substitution of existing windows with new certified high performance windows. The effectiveness of such retrofits was estimated also in terms of energy saving. Test results demonstrated a high variability of the building air tightness after window retrofits, despite the fact that air tight–certified windows were used. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Dietary Administration of Olive Mill Wastewater Extract Reduces Campylobacter spp. Prevalence in Broiler Chickens
Sustainability 2016, 8(9), 837; doi:10.3390/su8090837
Received: 17 June 2016 / Revised: 11 August 2016 / Accepted: 19 August 2016 / Published: 24 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Food wastes are sources of compounds that can be used as natural additives in the food and feed industry. The olive oil industry produces two main wastes: aqueous waste (olive mill wastewater) and solid waste (pomace or olive cake). These by-products are rich
[...] Read more.
Food wastes are sources of compounds that can be used as natural additives in the food and feed industry. The olive oil industry produces two main wastes: aqueous waste (olive mill wastewater) and solid waste (pomace or olive cake). These by-products are rich in phenols, which are antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds able to inhibit or delay the growth of several bacteria in vitro. The dietary effect of both olive mill wastewater polyphenolic extract (OMWPE) and dehydrated olive cake (DOC) on the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in broiler chickens was investigated. A commercial basal diet was supplemented with either OMWPE- or DOC-enriched maize at two dosages (low: 16%; high: 33%). The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. shedding was evaluated at 21, 35, and 49 days of age. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. differed among groups only at 49 days of age. Both OMWPE groups showed a lower (p < 0.05) prevalence compared to the control group. The odds ratio evaluation showed that the higher dose of OMWPE reduced the possibility of shedding 11-fold compared to the control group (p < 0.001). These results highlight the potential use of olive by-products against Campylobacter spp. in poultry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Assessment of the Air Pollution Level in the City of Rome (Italy)
Sustainability 2016, 8(9), 838; doi:10.3390/su8090838
Received: 20 May 2016 / Revised: 17 August 2016 / Accepted: 19 August 2016 / Published: 23 August 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (4595 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Exposure to pollutants is usually higher in cities than in the countryside. Generally, in the urban areas pollution sources as traffic, power generator and domestic heating system are more intense and spatially distributed. The pollutants can be classified as a function of long-term
[...] Read more.
Exposure to pollutants is usually higher in cities than in the countryside. Generally, in the urban areas pollution sources as traffic, power generator and domestic heating system are more intense and spatially distributed. The pollutants can be classified as a function of long-term toxicological effects due to an exposure and inhalation. In the present work, several kinds of pollutants concentration generated in Rome during 2015 have been analyzed applying different advanced post-processing technique. In particular, statistic and cross-statistic have been computed in time and phase space domain. As main result, it is observed, as expected, that all the pollutant concentrations increase during the winter season into a couple of time ranges despite of [O3] that has high values in summer. It can be clearly concluded that Rome has a strongly unsteady behaviour in terms of a family of pollutant concentration, which fluctuate significantly. It is worth noticing that there is a strong linear dependence between [C6H6] and [NO] and a more complex interdependence of [O3] and [C6H6]. Qualitatively is provided that, to a reduction of [C6H6] under a certain threshold level corresponds an increase of [O3]. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Cool Marble Building Envelopes: The Effect of Aging on Energy Performance and Aesthetics
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 753; doi:10.3390/su8080753
Received: 27 June 2016 / Revised: 28 July 2016 / Accepted: 29 July 2016 / Published: 5 August 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2441 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marble envelopes represent a relatively common architectural solution used in variety of historic, modern and contemporary building facades. White marble envelopes have been shown to reduce solar heat gains, while improving indoor thermal comfort and energy efficiency in summer time. While marble is
[...] Read more.
Marble envelopes represent a relatively common architectural solution used in variety of historic, modern and contemporary building facades. White marble envelopes have been shown to reduce solar heat gains, while improving indoor thermal comfort and energy efficiency in summer time. While marble is useful in this context, the urban atmosphere accelerates the degradation of marble elements. This leads to changes in optical characteristics, hence the aesthetics, and affects the energy efficiency benefits offered by white marble facades. These issues are investigated in order to predict the impact of degradation on energy performance and to the aesthetic value, such as change of color and luminosity. In this study, surface degradation of white marble is analyzed by means of accelerated weathering in the laboratory while examining changes to the optical characteristics of the materials. A dynamic simulation is carried out to assess the energy performance of a building as a case study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Driftwood Biomass in Italy: Estimation and Characterization
Sustainability 2016, 8(8), 725; doi:10.3390/su8080725
Received: 20 June 2016 / Revised: 20 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 July 2016 / Published: 29 July 2016
PDF Full-text (1508 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Italy, the accumulation of driftwood along the shore is a significant issue, especially for the coastal municipalities of the Central and Northern regions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution and availability of the coastal driftwood in Italy and
[...] Read more.
In Italy, the accumulation of driftwood along the shore is a significant issue, especially for the coastal municipalities of the Central and Northern regions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution and availability of the coastal driftwood in Italy and its impacts, as well as analyzing its chemical–physical properties to evaluate possible employment in combustion applications. On the basis of a data gathering campaign for the period 2010–2014, about 60,000 tons of driftwood are reported to accumulate along the Italian shores every year. The two regions hardest-hit were Liguria and Veneto, with about 15,000 tons and 12,000 tons, respectively. Three sites were selected for driftwood sampling. The main issue deriving from chemical characterization was the high chlorine content (up to 2% on dry basis) and metal oxides in the ashes. Driftwood samples were then subjected to a natural washing cycle for 1 month; results revealed a significant drop in chlorine and metal oxides contents (up to 80%) and a low decrease of the lower heating value (about 20%). Furthermore, the percolated water was analyzed in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD), showing values (up to 1100 mg O2/L) above the Italian limits for discharges into surface waters. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Water and Carbon Footprint of Wine: Methodology Review and Application to a Case Study
Sustainability 2016, 8(7), 621; doi:10.3390/su8070621
Received: 12 May 2016 / Revised: 23 June 2016 / Accepted: 27 June 2016 / Published: 2 July 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3621 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Life cycle assessments (LCAs) play a strategic role in improving the environmental performance of a company and in supporting a successful marketing communication. The high impact of the food industry on natural resources, in terms of water consumption and greenhouse gases emission, has
[...] Read more.
Life cycle assessments (LCAs) play a strategic role in improving the environmental performance of a company and in supporting a successful marketing communication. The high impact of the food industry on natural resources, in terms of water consumption and greenhouse gases emission, has been focusing the attention of consumers and producers towards environmentally sustainable products. This work presents a comprehensive approach for the joint evaluation of carbon (CF) and water (WF) footprint of the wine industry from a cradle to grave perspective. The LCA analysis is carried out following the requirements of international standards (ISO/TS 14067 and ISO 14046). A complete review of the water footprint methodology is presented and guidelines for all the phases of the evaluation procedure are provided, including acquisition and validation of input data, allocation, application of analytic models, and interpretation of the results. The strength of this approach is the implementation of a side-by-side CF vs. WF assessment, based on the same system boundaries, functional unit, and input data, that allows a reliable comparison between the two indicators. In particular, a revised methodology is presented for the evaluation of the grey water component. The methodology was applied to a white and a red wine produced in the same company. A comparison between the two products is presented for each LCA phase along with literature results for similar wines. Full article
Open AccessArticle LED Lighting for Indoor Sports Facilities: Can Its Use Be Considered as Sustainable Solution from a Techno-Economic Standpoint?
Sustainability 2016, 8(7), 618; doi:10.3390/su8070618
Received: 24 May 2016 / Revised: 24 June 2016 / Accepted: 27 June 2016 / Published: 30 June 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3292 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, the authors propose a techno-economic comparative analysis between different lighting solutions, using, respectively, floodlight with metal halide lamps, luminaires with fluorescent lamps and LED floodlights. The comparison is aimed to identify general criteria for assessing the techno-economic sustainability of the
[...] Read more.
In this paper, the authors propose a techno-economic comparative analysis between different lighting solutions, using, respectively, floodlight with metal halide lamps, luminaires with fluorescent lamps and LED floodlights. The comparison is aimed to identify general criteria for assessing the techno-economic sustainability of the use of LED lighting for indoor sports facilities, since this solution is very often proposed to achieve a reduction of the electrical power for lighting. From a technical standpoint, the analysis takes into particular consideration the aspects related to the satisfaction of lighting requirements, safety and energy efficiency. From an economic standpoint the investment, the operating and the maintenance costs are evaluated. To make comparisons on an economic basis, specific indicators are used. From the obtained results it is possible to highlight as the solution that uses the LED floodlights is characterized by highest energy efficiency. This solution requires a smaller number of luminaires and it has limited maintenance costs compared to the other solutions, but it has high investment costs, which involve reasonable payback times only when the sports facility is used intensively and for competitions of high level. Full article
Open AccessArticle Reuse and Upcycling of Municipal Waste for ZEB Envelope Design in European Urban Areas
Sustainability 2016, 8(7), 610; doi:10.3390/su8070610
Received: 16 May 2016 / Revised: 22 June 2016 / Accepted: 24 June 2016 / Published: 29 June 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3194 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Building energy efficiency and urban waste management are two focal issues for improving environmental status and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The main aim of this paper is to compare economic costs of new building envelope structures designed by authors reusing and upcycling municipal
[...] Read more.
Building energy efficiency and urban waste management are two focal issues for improving environmental status and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The main aim of this paper is to compare economic costs of new building envelope structures designed by authors reusing and upcycling municipal waste in order to decrease energy demand from the building sector and, at the same time, improve eco-friendly waste management at the local scale. The reuse of waste for building envelope structures is one of the main principles of the Earthship buildings model, based on the use of passive solar principles in autonomous earth-sheltered homes. This Earthship principle has been analyzed in order to optimize buildings’ energy performance and reuse municipal waste for new building envelope structures in urban areas. Indeed, the elaborated structures have been designed for urban contexts, with the aim of reuse waste coming from surrounding landfills. The methods include an analysis of thermal performance of urban waste for designing new building envelope structures realized by assembling waste and isolating materials not foreseen in Earthship buildings. The reused materials are: cardboard tubes, automobile tires, wood pallets, and plastic and glass bottles. Finally, comparing economic costs of these new building envelope structures, the obtained results highlight their economic feasibility compared to a traditional structure with similar thermal transmittance. Full article

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