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Sustainability 2016, 8(2), 133; doi:10.3390/su8020133

Water Quality Assessment and Pollution Source Identification of the Eastern Poyang Lake Basin Using Multivariate Statistical Methods

1
Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
2
AAAS Science and Technology Policy Fellow, U.S. Agency for International Development, Accra, Ghana
3
Institute of Agricultural Economics and Development, The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
4
Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Regional Modern Agriculture & Environmental Protection, Huaiyin Normal University, Huai’an 223300, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vincenzo Torretta
Received: 2 November 2015 / Revised: 16 January 2016 / Accepted: 19 January 2016 / Published: 30 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Sustainable Use of the Environment and Resources)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4246 KB, uploaded 30 January 2016]   |  

Abstract

Multivariate statistical methods including cluster analysis (CA), discriminant analysis (DA) and component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA), were applied to explore the surface water quality datasets including 14 parameters at 28 sites of the Eastern Poyang Lake Basin, Jiangxi Province of China, from January 2012 to April 2015, characterize spatiotemporal variation in pollution and identify potential pollution sources. The 28 sampling stations were divided into two periods (wet season and dry season) and two regions (low pollution and high pollution), respectively, using hierarchical CA method. Four parameters (temperature, pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH4-N), and total nitrogen (TN)) were identified using DA to distinguish temporal groups with close to 97.86% correct assignations. Again using DA, five parameters (pH, chemical oxygen demand (COD), TN, Fluoride (F), and Sulphide (S)) led to 93.75% correct assignations for distinguishing spatial groups. Five potential pollution sources including nutrients pollution, oxygen consuming organic pollution, fluorine chemical pollution, heavy metals pollution and natural pollution, were identified using PCA/FA techniques for both the low pollution region and the high pollution region. Heavy metals (Cuprum (Cu), chromium (Cr) and Zinc (Zn)), fluoride and sulfide are of particular concern in the study region because of many open-pit copper mines such as Dexing Copper Mine. Results obtained from this study offer a reasonable classification scheme for low-cost monitoring networks. The results also inform understanding of spatio-temporal variation in water quality as these topics relate to water resources management. View Full-Text
Keywords: water pollution; spatio-temporal variation; pollution source identification; Eastern Poyang Lake Basin water pollution; spatio-temporal variation; pollution source identification; Eastern Poyang Lake Basin
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Duan, W.; He, B.; Nover, D.; Yang, G.; Chen, W.; Meng, H.; Zou, S.; Liu, C. Water Quality Assessment and Pollution Source Identification of the Eastern Poyang Lake Basin Using Multivariate Statistical Methods. Sustainability 2016, 8, 133.

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